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December 29, 1961     The Observer
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December 29, 1961

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were and then 3,000 word in Czech, Slo- agarian, Bulgarian n. prepared by other as well as Protestants do: church leaders also broadcast. BEHIND THE IRON CURTAIN--Christmas greetings from ten- Midnight Mass in the Vati- year-old Laszlo Hamos of Englewood, N.J to his aunt .still in celebrated by Pope John, Hungary, are recorded at Radio Free Europe s New York also broadcast by RFE. Oth- studios. Tiber Florian, editor of RFE's "Messages" program, programs were masses broad- looks on. During Christmas week RFE carried a full schedule cast from Munich and London. of Chrishnas programming behind the Iron Curtain, including His Protestant and Orthodox servicesI Holiness Pope John XxIIrs annual Christmas message.--(NC were broadcast from Munich,t Photo) Paris and New York. " I," RFE, supported by AmericanlDrc~lmt ~ ~mllco contributions, broadcasts 18 hours I ss~a ~a~ ~,~7o daily to Czechoslovakia, Hungary/ and Poland and five hours daily to ~mm~LLA|=eA ~JAA,| ~A~L r~AlU Bulgaria andRomania. ~d|||U||~ |1~| |lU| r~d| Priest OfferedL " A " C " . atlnmerlcall ommunlsm Junta Pos#lon MEDELL,N, Colombia -- There ance with the directives of the ad- SANTO DOMINGO, Dominican is no bests for the pessimism that mirable encyclical, Meter et Ma- Republic, (NC) -- Respect for per- prevails among many Catholics gisU~a. sonal freedoms and a .~uarantee of in Latin America in regard to the Such action, the prelate con- obedience from the Army were Church's problems in this area, a tinued, will deter a wave of pes- among the conditions laid down by Colombian prelate declared here. simism that is. playing into com- a prelate before he would accept Archbishop Tulio Botera Sala- munist hands. a position on the seven-man junta that will rule the Dominican Re- public until elections can be held. Msgr. EIlseo Perez Sanchez, Vicar General of the Santo Domin- go archdiocese and a longtime member of the Dominican Senate said that his conditions had been considered by President Joaquin Balaguer in connection with the appointment. Msgr. Perez Sanchez listed sev- en prerequisites in all. He asked that the provisional council mem- bership be agreed upon by Bala- guer and by the opposition parties, that it have the "absolute sup- port" of the Army, that crimes be punished only by lawful means, that freedom of press and speech observed, that political cam- Joints be taken to the proper au- or to the council, and those identified with the old ?rujillo regime not be persecuted eL for actual, provable He also said his appoint- nt had to be approved by his Church superiors. zar, C.M spoke in an interview on his return here from Mexico, where he took part m the sixth annual meeting of the Latin American Bishops' Council (CE- LAM). The conclusions of the CELAM meeting, which dealt with family problems and the urgent need for social reform in Laiin America, are awaiting the approval of the Holy See before being made pub- lic, Archbishop Botero said. Social Doctrine Work Catholics Must Trust "We Catholics must oppose this atmosphere of defeat with a se- trust in the rene attitude of Church, a staunch, responsible and vigorous faith in the effec tiveness of the Gospel and with a full certainty that if we live our doer:fine, if we apply the Christian principles, we will solve our evils." He added: "We cannot pursue the policy of the ostrich by bury- ing our head so as not to see dan- The Archbishop stressed that gets. But neither do we need to Latin American Catholics must exaggerate the situation and con- make a major effort to put the sider ourselves last. social doctrine of the Church into "There ere stimulating ad- effect. The meeting agreed, he re- vances and accomplishments ported, that "it is urgent for Cath- throughout the length and breadthI alias to start learning the social of the continent," Archbishop Bo-: doctrine of the Church early in tero said. "The work that the their school years. Together with the catechism, children must learn Catholic social principles, comment on them, understand experience and apply them. "This social training," he con tinned, "must be made in accord- Church's priests and faithful are accomplishing in the apostolate, in education, motion pictures, the n'ess and radio, in welfare and social aid is admirable," he con- cluded. ATTENTION: ALL ILLINOIS Meet Tuesday ROCKFORD -- The Ladies of Columbus will hold their first meeting of the new year Tues- day, Jan. 2, at 8 p.m. in the Knights of Columbus hall. Mrs. Joseph Lester will preside and re- freshments will be served. THE OBSERVER FRIDAY, DECEMBER 29, 1961 THEOLOGY FOR EVERYMAN n" / Very few problems involving the teaching of the Church in recent Catholic moral philosophy indicate the limits of the power of the conform to the principles of Catholic social philosophy. Distinction oE times have attracted the attention that has been paid to the subject I state, and the subjection of the rulers of the state to the moral law. Ithe two powers does not mean that they can have no relations with of relations between organized religion and the operations of govern- Political activity is human activity. And human activity in whatever leach other. Each must recognize the existence of the other, and must ment. Despite the vast amount of commentary on .the matter before sphere, [s essentially moral activity, to be regulated by the reality of ~agree on the conditions necessary for the exercise "of their proper and during last year's presidential campaign, widespread ignorance man's dependence on God and man's destiny for eternal happiness functions. Moreover, the very nature of the Church indicates its su- persists about the true teachings of theology in the area of Omrch- in tho presence of God. This fundamental principle demands respect periority over the state. State governments, we have already noted, State adjustments. Many seemingly conflicting formulas m;e solemn- for the moral law in the pursuit of immediate advantages within the are bound by the moral law. And since morality expresses the rela- ly put forth as the "official" position of the Church. As a rule, none political order. The state cannot claim independence of the laws of tioa of man's dependence on God and man's destiny to eternal happi- of them are completely correct. To dispel some of the confusion the morality which bind its individual members. The moral law must be ness, in God's presence, the state is brought into a relation of sub- following commentary was prepared at St. John's Seminary, Brigh- obeyed on the levels of social and political activity no less than in ordination to the Church from this important point of view. ton, Mass. It is reprinted from The (Boston) Pilot. the relations of individuals and groups within the state. * * * Thus it is wrong for the state to punish people who are innocent of Q. HOW DO CATHOLIC THEOLOGIANS PRESENT.THE PROB- crimei to.obtain confession of guilt by torture; to separate children LEM OF THE RELATION OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY TO THE from their parents, or to interfere with the normal development of MORAL LAW? i familv life. It is wrong for the state to build up its military power by A. The Church has always opposed attempts to dissociate political ! depriving its subjects of the elementary necessities of life. It is wrong activity from the moral law. The claim of independence for politics ::~:: ~ began to be made in the Fourteenth Century and found definite ex- pression in the writings of Machiavelli (1469-1527). The laws of the ~! state are supreme, it was asserted. The policies of the state are to be ~i~:L ~{ formulated on the basis of the needs of the people as they become evident in actual experience. What is right is what is successful. It is impossible to conceive of a moral order based on principle as the ~~~ starting point of.political activity. ~~~ IN MODERN TIMES THE TEACHINGS of Machiavelli have L~:~~ evolved into the doctrine of state absolutism. According to this doc- ~~~ trine every form of human activity, including the teaching and prac- ~~:~i~ rice of religion is subordinate to thv interests of the state and must ~~~}i come under the control of state laws. To a great extent this principle ~~ii has yielded in practice to prevalent respect for the natural law and ~~;~:~ to the influence of revealed religion. Today, however, even among ~ :~~ people who are religious, and who believe in a natural law based on ~~ ciples of religion and morality, and to direct men's lives according to these teachings, is entirely dependent on the concession of the state. - i~i::Ji!iiiiiiiii::~:!i!ii:i::i * ~, * ~, Coadjutor Archbishop Evelio Diaz y Cia of Havana converses over a perioa oz rive centuries mese clmms oz me stale nave rne[ . with Cuban Premier, Fidel Castro, early in 1960. wire incre~smgw less resistance. xne actual possessmn oz power ny the state and its gradual extension into widening areas of men's for the state to control public opinion by falsification and calumny, lives have created a de facto supremacy of the state for which mad- or to stir up opposition against enemy nations by spreading feelings ern philosophers have attempted to find theoretical justification. Un- der the influence of a materialistic philosophy of life the modern state has come more and more to realize its totalitarian pretensions. The life of the nation is the all-embracing totality within which the Church is allowed to carry on its work. The purpose of the Church thus becomes more and more to serve the state. The state becomes the supreme authority which will determine the manner in which religious worship shall be conducted. The guiding principle of moral doctrine will be the usefulness Of human activity for the survival of the state, not its conformity With the law of God. AGAINST THIS TENDENCY TO DEIFY the state the teachings of MEET THE r THE REV. WILLIAM JAMES McHUGH, a graduate strident at Notre Dame university, Notre Dame, Ind was born in Aurora June 14, 1934, the son of IvIr. and Mrs. Francis D. McHugh. A member of Our Lady of Good Counsel parish, he attended Mar. mion military academy in Aurora and then went to the College of St. Thomas and St. Paul, Minn for his classical college studies. He studied philosophy and the- ology at St. Paul seminary in St. Paul and was ordained by the Most Rev. Loras T. Lane at Our Lady of Good Counsel parish in Aurora May 30, 1959. His first assignment was as as- sistant pastor, pro tern, at St. Pat- rick parish in St. Charles, where he remained until February 5, 1960, when he was appointed as- sistant at St. Thomas the Apostle parish in Crystal Lake. June 9, 1961 he was assigned to take graduate studies in education at Notre Dame university, Notre Dame, Ind. Old Time' Flavor Likes of hatred and revenge. POPE PIUS XI, wRITING IN 1937 against the dangers of the Nazi regime in Germany, pointed out the evil of the principle that useful- ness makes moral rectitude. This principle, he said, is capable of a correct interpretation, in that nothing that is morally wrong can ever be truly useful for any people. The principle is completely wrong, however, when it is interpreted to mean that usefulness is to be de- termined without regard for the moral law. We must never forget, the Pope warned, that man, as a person, receives rights immediate- ly from God. These rights are beyond the reach of any form of state government. To deny this truth is to forget that, in the last analysis, the common good derives from the very nature of things. To depart from the principles of morality which are based on this truth is to endanger the very structure of human society. t Q. IF THE CHURCH IS NOT SUBJECT TO THE STATE IN MAT- TERS OF MORALITY, IS THE OPPOSITE PROPOSITION TRUE, ['HAT THE STATE, IN SUCH MATTERS, IS COMPLETELY SUB- JECT TO THE CHURCH? A. Many shades of opinion have entered into the answer to this question throughout the history of theology. Some have held that the very existence of the state is inconsistent with the nature of the Church as it was founded by Christ. Those who have i tended in this direction have found support for their teaching in St. Augustine's City of God in which the city of this world seems to be presented as radically hostile to the City of God. Others, while hold- ing that the state is distinct from the Church, have demanded that the Church have power over the state. The Church, they say, shonld rule the social body as the soul rules the individual body or the head governs the members. Under this opinion, the temporal order would Ibe regarded, even in this world, as having no significance save in re- lation to the spiritual order. Temporal rules would not function through power proper to themselves, but only as agents of the Church. A THIRD OPINION, AT THE OTHER EXTREME, would regard the Chureh as a department of the state, on the same level with every other department. The Church would exercise supreme control in matters of religion, just as do the other departments of the state within their respective competencies. The Church would thus be re- sponsible for the moral law, and for the regulation of public order through the practice of religion, but it would do all this in the name of the state. t t None of these theories can be accepted as representative of the Catholic position on the relation between Church and state. In mod- ern times it has become clear that the civil power exists in its own THIS RELATIONSHIP DOES NOT DESTROY, however, the in- dependence of the state. The purpose of the state is to provide for man's temporal well-being, w.hich pertains to a distinct area of his human life. To say that the state is subordinate to the Church means that the state should carry on its functions in accordance with the laws of morality, and thus create within human society a climate which will make it possible for the Church to fulfill its divinely ap- pointed mission. The subordination of the state to the Church does~ not mean, however, that the state is merely an instrument for reali2- ing the purposes of the Church, and that it would have no reason for existing apart from the needs of the Church. Nor does it mean that the state must submit to the supervision and guidance of the Church; the state remains supreme and sovereign in its own order. The Church has no proper competency in matters which fall under the competency of the state. The Church's competence in secular matters belongs to a higher order. As a visible society i~ its own right, the Church is divinely au- thorized to fulfill its mission within the world, and to point out to all ]who live in the world their moral obligations as creatures of God. The Church has the right, therefore, to teach the principles of re- ligion not only to individuals, but to groups within the state and even !to the rulers of the state themselves. Q. HOW DOES TtlIS TEACHING ON THE RELATION BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE DIFFER FROM THE THEORIES PREVIo OUSLY NOTED? A. It is wrong, first of all, to think of the Church as radically op- posed to the state. The City of God must not be placed in opposition to the city of this world. To do this would be to make the state a completely human invention, and to overlook the divine origin of hu- man authority. It would mean further to conceive of the state as en- tirely without relation to the supernatural order, and to regard its activity as entirely without significance for the moral and religious life of its members. For Christians, to participate in the activity of the civil community is not an extraneous occupation, merely to be tolerated, but the fulfillment of a moral obligation. IT IS WRONG LIKEWISE TO THINK of the Church as destined to control the civil power, as the head governs the members. This con- ception of the relation between Church and state gained acceptanc~ during a period of historY when the civil power had become weak- ened, and the enduring organization of the Church began to assume responsibilities in the temporal order which the civil power was un- able to discharge. For many centuries the Church was looked to for services which were not strictly within its competency because the civil power, so extensive during the period of the Roman Empire, lost effectiveness during the Middle Ages. In our own day, when the states of the world have regained their jurisdiction and are exercising it efficiently, it is wrong to think of the Church as in any way competent in matters pertaining exclu- sively to the temporal order. Fundamentally, the state is a natural institution. It's functioninlf is to be determined by the principles of the natural law, not to be deduced from the teachings of divine rev- elation. We must look for the answers to purely political in the principles of natural morality, not in the positive content of teachings of divine revelation. ON THE OTHER HAND, it is not right for the Church and the st,~tt to function in complete independence of each other. Both societies deal with the human beings. When this fundamental fact is over- looked, the state finds it easy to assume complete control over all human activity, and thus to deny the very right of the Church to ex- ist. Moreover, the fact of original sin, with its consequent weakening of human nature, makes it necessary for those areas of human lifo over which the state is competent to be penetrated by the superna- tural influences which are within the competence of the Church. The state cannot properly fulfill its own functions if it regards the func- tions of the Church as having no significance for the general welfare of men. The Church, on the other hand, must not exercise its com- petence in matters of religion and morality in such a way as to de- stroy the essential independence of the state within the temporal order. Quality with Equipment Your NON-PROFIT OF THE U.S.A. IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT iiili! For only $3.00 a month Catholic men under 61 can now receive $100.00 each week while hospitalized for any ac- cident or sickness covered by the insurance of our non-profit Society. Payments can continue for as long as you are in the hospital. LIFE- TIME BENEFITS. Catholic women and men 61 through 80 get an identical policy at a slightly higher cost. You are paid in addition to any other insurance, includ- ing Workmen's Compensa- tion. Your benefits begin the first day in the hospital. all at low non-profit rates in I1| IIINiinll illllllnll,m i,n m Ii m m ii m,m i m m,|,|,|m| 11 II,q" m : For Fre. ! act, ! i ! IO DBLII ATIC)It i i It You Are a Catholic and Live in Illinois | (PR 11.19-61) "~ To: Holy Family Society, 231 Ruby Street, Joliet, Ill. ~. i Please rush me FREE FACTS about the Society's NON- ! PROFIT health protection for Illinois Catholics ONLY. 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For liberal philosoph- ers outside the Church, the separation of Church and state must be complete; each must carry out its functions in complete separation of the other. THE FIRST ONE TO PRESENT the liberal point of view in a forceful and influential way was the Italian jurist Albertico Gentili (1552-1608). As a Protestant, he was forced to flee from Perugia, in Italy, where he had made his university studies. He found refuge in England, where he lectured at Oxford. He was concerned principal- ly with finding application of the principles of the natural law to the relations with one another of the newly developing states of Europe. To a great extent he followed the principles of both the Roman law i and the canon law of the Church, but he looked to the natural law for the foundation of his teaching. He thus arrived at the conclusion that the conducting of state governments must be entirely independent of the Church of Rome. 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