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December 29, 1961     The Observer
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r o By FATHER JOHN RYAN SOMETIMES I WONDER ABOUT MY PURPOSE OF AMENDMENT IN CONFESSION. AS I LOOK BACK OVER THE PAST, I RECALL BREAKING THE SAME RESOLU- TION MANY TIMES. HOW DOES THAT AFFECT MY PAST CONFESSIONS? The breaking of a resolution does not necessarily affect the Confession in which the resolution was made. Purpose of amendment, a necessary part of true contrition for sin, is a determination to avoid sin accompanied by a real, firm re- solve to avoid also the occasion of sin. As long as you feel reasonably sure that your Confession always contained a firm purpose of amendment, the relapse into sin is ex- plained by some other cause. Perfection in the practice of virtue seldom, if ever, comes with one resolution. The fact that a resolu- tion has been broken is not a reason why it. should not be made sincerely again. The im- portant consideration in your question is, that as long as you recall no specific instance in which you neglected to make the necessary purpose of amendment, stop worrying about your past Confessions. COULD YOU TELL ME IF THERE IS A SPECIAL DEDI- CATION OF EACH MONTH IN THE YEAR TO SOME PARTICULAR DEVOTION? January, the Holy Name; February, the Passion; March, St. Joseph; April, the Holy Eucharist; May, Mary; June, the Sacred Heart; July, the Precious Blood; August, the Immacu- late Heart of Mary; September, Mary Queen of Martyrs; October, the Holy Rosary; November, the Suffering Souls; December, the Infancy of Jesus. I WOULD LIKE SOME INFORMATION ON THE TRAP- PIST ORDER. The Cistercians are an Order founded at Citeaux in the year 1098 by St. Robert of Molesme, St. Albefic and St. Stephen Harding. Their purpose was to follow the strict observance of the Rule of St. Benedict. They are divided into two groups, the Common and the More Strict. The More Strict Observance has perpetual silence, absti- nence from flesh meat, fish and eggs (except for the sick), no separate cells, choir chanting of the Hours of the Breviary be- ginning with the night office at 2 a.m. and manual labor for the choir Monks as well as for the lay Brothers. Their work is preeminently farming, a trade in which they are masters, though for the upkeep of their monasteries, they engage in many varied occupations. The Canadian Abbey of LaTrappe conducts a government agricultural school. They wear the great tonsure. Their habit is a white tunic, black scapular with a hood attached and a white cowl with a hood worn in choir. The name Trappist is no longer a proper title for these monks. It pertained to a group who followed the constitutions of the abbey at LaTrappe, France, from 1664 to 1892. Then they were absorbed into the Cistercians of the More Strict Ob- ~ servance. They use the initials O.C.S.0. i The nuns of this Order, called the Trappestines, follow the same rule as that of the monks. They are strictly enclosed and contemplative. WHAT IS THE GENERAL RULING ON ATTENDANCE AT SUNDAY MASS FOR EXPECTANT MOTHERS? ALSO, WHAT EXEMPTIONS DO THEY ENJOY FROM THE EU- CHARISTIC FAST? Tlmre is no general ruling on attendance at Sunday Mass made for the benefit of all expectant mothers. They are to follow the ordinary precept in-so-far as they are capable of doing so. In other words, a woman is not exempted from the obligation of attending Sunday (or Holyday) Mass just be- cause she is pregnant, but is excused from the obligation on any Sunday or Holyday on which her condition warrants her staying home. There are many and varied reasons why an ex, pectant mother would be excused depending on the person, the weather, the hour of Mass, crowded conditions in church, distance to be traveled etc. Each individual must judge for herself on the particular day whether or not her condition per. miss her or prevents her from fulfilling the obligation. As for the Eucharistic fast, expectant mothers are bound to the rules which oblige all the faithful, i.e. a three hour fast from all solid foods and alcoholic drinks and a one hour fast from liquid nourishments such as coffee, tea, fruit juice, clear broth and the like. Water may be taken at any time, since it does not break the fast at all and real medicines may be taken by those who need them without regulation of time. KINDLY TELL ME WHO HEADS THE CHURCH FROM THE TIME OF THE POPE'S DEATH UNTIL THE ELEC- TION OF THE NEW POPE? The Camerlengo or Chamberlain of the Apostolic Camera (always a Cardinal) becomes head of the Sacred Congregation of Cardinals and is in charge of the administration of the Church upon the death of the Pope. He assembles the Con- clave and takes charge of it until the new Pope is elected. The Apostolic Camera (Chamber) is the office entrusted with the administration of the revenue and the property of the Holy See, even during the lifetime of the Pope, but especially at his death. The community of nations must reckon with unprincipled criminals who, in order to realize their ambitious plans, are not afraid to unleash total war. This is the reason why other countries, if they wish to preserve their very existence and their most precious possessions, and unless they are prepared to accord free action to international criminals, have no alternatives hut to get ready for the day when they must de. fend themselves. This right to be prepared for self-defense cannot be denied, even in these days, to any state. That how- ever does not in any way alter the fact that unjust war is to be accounted as one of the very gravest crimes which inter- national penal law must prescribe, must punish with the heavi- est penalties, and the authors of which are in every case guilty and liable to the punishment that has been agreed upon. --Pope Plus XII (cpa) Vol. XXVI, No. 52 ~ ] December 29, 1961 THE MOS1 REVEREND LORAS [ LANE Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women's Page Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BARBARA GRAY Feature Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Business ROBERT ) STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer. published weekly at 1060 W. Stephenson St Freeport, Illinois. is the official newspaper at the Catholic DioceSe of Rockford. Second class postage paid at Freeport Illinois. Subscriptions $4.00 per year prepaid in the Unite@ States ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER. 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREET ROCKFORD ILLINOIS POSTMASTER: Please send Farm 3579 to the OBSERVER, 1260 North Church Street, g~ckford, Illinois. ! -'qE Family Communion Sunday Ianuary 7, the Feast of the Holy Fam- ily, marks the opening of Catholic Family Week during which the sanctity of marriage, the dignity of family life, the graces of the Sacrament of Ma- trimony and the social importance of family life receive special emphasis. The Family Communion Crusade has again designated the Feast of the Holy Family as family communion Sunday. The family is the basic unit of society. As the family goes, so goes society. Today the family is not going too well, hence society is ailing. If we want to cure society, we must first cure the fam- ily. We all admit the urgency of the problem. Un- fortunately we frequently turn to the wrong solu- tions. There is no social or economic cure--all for present day ills. The cure must be applied to the very root of the trouble. The root of the trouble is the failure to recognize the family as a spiritual unit designed by God Himself and admirably en- dorsed by the earthly life of Christ. Basically family life is falling apart because the one thing that can hold it together is being ne- glected or overlooked--the Christlife which is sanctifying grace. By our worldliness and our im- mersion in things material we have weakened the fiber of that life in us. As a result we are out of focus. Our thinking is getting less and less Chris- tian; our living less and less Christ-like. Christ and His grace must be made to bear on the family. In its simplest formula the only solu- tion is this: Bring Christ back to the home. It is for this reason that the Family Commu- nion Crusade is so important. This movement to promote family Communion each month had its origin in a Catholic family in Brooklyn more than fifty years ago. We urgeall families to join this salutary cru- sade. There are no dues or meetings, n'ferely ac- tion and dedication. By bringing the family to- gether at the communion table to partake together in Christ's sacrificial banquet, it is becoming a powerful aid in the rehabilitation and reorienta- tion of home life. The Per: "For God's sake, help us" were the last words transmitted on the Hungarian Free radio on that tragic day five years ago when Soviet troops and tanks were swooping into Budapest to squelch the efforts of the Hungarian Freedom Fighters to lib- erate their country from the grasp of communism. Although the plea went unheeded at the time, there is no justification in permitting it to be for- gotten. In Hungary and in a circle of countries around the globe this plea goes out from the hearts of millions of people held in the grip of Communist power. For this reason Catholics in this country are asked to dedicate the final day of this year as a day of prayer for the persecuted peoples of the world. Special prayers will be said in all parish churches after Masses Sunday December 31 and also at other religious services such as the New Year's Eve holy hour to be conducted in most parishes. This spirit of prayer for the persecuted should not be limited to one day but should carry over into the new year. The problems of the world are becoming more serious. We are too prone to for- get the sad plight of others while we fall prey to complacency, the greatest failing of Americans. ]11 II I I I II " " I rl I I I II Ill I I II II I Ill II II I I I I SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM I II "'l ' I I I I I i i i bll iii i elb I I IIll I I I I I I i i i ! ii I,i,ii,i C@U T NEST EGGS FOR THE FUTURE. There is one principle in the papal social encyclicals which is being quoted these days with much enthusiasm. Some seem to think the words have a magical power which invalidates every piece of social legislation that has been passed in the last two or three decades. The papal state- ment runs as follows: "That most weighty principle, which cannot be set aside or changed, remains fixed and un- shaken in social philosophy: Just~~ as it is gravely !~I!!~! !~i!!iii wrong to take ~i~!| from individuals what they can accomplish by~~:~>;'iii:!ii::i::!ii~i~; ! their own initia- ~~ tire and industry and give it to the community, so also it is an injustice and at the same time a grave evil and disturbance of fight order to as- sign to a greater and higher association what lesser and sub- ordinate organizations can do. For every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them."(*) This is the much-mouthed "prin- ciple of subsidiarity." We have seen it quoted as an argument against the income tax law; as the last word on why medical aid to the aged under social security is dangerous; as a proof for State's Rights versus the Supreme Court decision on inte- gration; as a "fool-proof" repudia- tion of the "non-voluntary" nature of our whole social security sys- tem. In reverse it has been used as a justification of the Landrum- Griffin Law to "curb the abuses of the labor unions." Economic Principle I have never read of it being applied to any of the individual states for exercising political power that might be better left to the cities or local communities. I have never come across the use of it by any ardent "State's Right- FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. er" pointing out that the states may have been delinquent in their social responsibilities and, there- by, compelled a higher power to act. It would be too much to expect that those who view all public issues from the "right or the far right" would ever even suspect that this principle applies with equal force to an economic system as it does to the political world. To read the "quotes" one would get the impression that the only possible violator of the principle of subsidiafity is the federal government. Foundation Stone In truth, however, this papal postulate is the general, all-em- bracing basis for the whole of society and any and all of the constituent parts and groups that make up a society, or any organi- zation, public or private. It is the foundation stone of Social Order. It is just a little late in the day for the critics to berate public officials, federal or state, for seek- ing solutions for nation-wide so- cial problems through the medium of legislation. Just as it is a vain and futile thought that our indus- trialists will turn the economic system inside-out and take steps to introduce the principle of sub- sidiarity into the free enterprise system that already exists and has grown old in the hardened molds which now encase it. The one outstanding example in American life of the success of this principle is in our judiciary. Our courts do function along the lines of lesser powers for local problems, rising in orderly fa- shion through State courts to the Supreme Tribunal. Unions Good Example A second nation-wide example of the recognition of the principle is seen (if you will excuse the ex- pression) in the labor movement. in spite of its abuses and the "honoring in the breach" of its ideals, structurally and constitu. tionally, beginning with the local union, going on to the autonomous international union end climaxing in a national federation of consti- tuent bodies, AFL-CIO is a clear end didactic example of the ap- plication of the principle of sub- sidiafity. History is to blame if our in- dustrial society does not reflect the papal principle. The industrial revolution was based on a mis- conception of freedom and the spurning of the very concept of social order. We have spent the past hundred years in an embat- tled effort to correct most of the disastrous effects which followed from it. And yet, the modern corpora- tion, with its evolved "chain of command" and collective bargain- ing contracts is characterized by a definite note of social order. The lack of cooperation between man- agement and unions, on the other hand, and the life-and-death strug- gles between the corporations and intra-union squabbles are exam- ples of the repudiation of the prin- ciple. Presents Principles Whether the federal government in the United Stetes is encroach- ing upon state's rights is not a question to be decided by quoting an encyclical. The Pope does not make the laws for this or any other country. He presents the social principles. In the long run, it is the citizens who determine the type and extent of what legis- lation they want when they elect their representatives to public of- fice. The Supreme Court is vested with the power to decide Consti- tutional questions. More so than in most countries we in the United States through our Constitution recognize this great principle of subsidiarity. The specific application of it rests with our elected public officials. When and if they violate the prin- ciple we should tell them about it. But the mere quoting of the papal statement is in no way a proof of a violation. Too often the protest is a subtle plea for the philosophy of Indiv- idualism. If the principle of sub- sidiafity does anything, it repu- diates Individualism as a philo- sophy of life. One need but read the wording of it to realize that. (*) "Quadragesimo Anne"--Pope Plus XI, Benzlger Edition, No. 7g REAPINGS AT RANDOM O lan e resslon in al o By GERARD E. SHERRY United Nations Ambassador Stevenson'swarning the other night that if the world body did not act in the case of india's aggression against Goa, it might mean the end of the organi- zation, must ha~e been given wfth a heavy heart. Stevenson was the only one present in the Security Council chamber who had been in at the beginnings of the United Nations when the charter was signed in San Francisco. Our government has lived up to the charter even when it meant opposing close friends and allies in doing .so. Mr. Stevenson was so right to suggest that the United States, nor any other country, could not apply double standards in relation to aggressive acts. This much is clear. India invaded the Portuguese colonies without prior negotia- tion. It took them by force; and India defies the world organi- zation in trying to justify it all. Mr. Nehru's asinine remarks that the quick occupation of the Portuguese enclaves proves India was fight, is ludicrous. India used 30,000 troops against some 12,000 poorly armed Portuguese gendarmes and soldiers. The Indian Navy got into the act sinking a couple of Portu- guese sloops to prove its "peaceful" intent. It was a premedi- tated attack on a member of the United Nations. The U.N.'s inability to do anything about it may prove to be the start of its demise. Nothing Today Nehru, the apostle of non-violence; the self-styled mediator between East and West; has shown that his principles are as shaky as jello in a glass bowl. What is even more tragic is that Defense Minister V. K. Krishna Menon, another of the Indian "peace apostles" re- fused to classify his government action as aggression. He arrogantly suggests there is nothing more to be said in the matter. This is the same man who, during the Korean War, criticized U.S. and United Nations' actions, suggesting that war was unthinkable as the solution to world problems. Over the years he has made the same point whenever the U.S. or the U.N. has moved to take action against aggression from the Communists. The Goa incident has removed all doubt as to the phony neutrality of India. It has also shown skilled, Marxist style action, when confronted with an impasse--especially against a weak nation. India has far more cause to answer with force the Chinese Communist provocations on its borders than it has in relation to the Portuguese colonies. Alas, this would have meant standing up for real principles. Nehru and Menon have shown they lack the courage to resist anyone but the weak. India Exposed Never again will we be impressed by the clipped-Oxford ac- cent of Pandit Nehru; never again can Krishna Menon pontifi- cate with pious cliches in the halls of the U.N. Building. He has been exposed for all to see and his country will be the biggest loser. Gandhi's disciples, who claimed they were practicing his preachments of non-violent resistance, have done something which will probably make the old man turn in his grave. What is even more tragic, however, is that Indian action has undetermined the ability of the United Nations to mediate between East and West; to promote peace and eliminate war. If the United Nations charter is a piece of paper to be ob- served only when its suits us, then the organization has failed. India has been permitted to get away with aggression. What other countries, both big and small, have not already seen the green light for their own dark ambitions? World anarchy may well result. As one who has always advocated support for the U.N.' as one who has longed to see it succeed; its inability to deal firmly with the Indian aggression saddens us. It is awfuUy hard for the people of these United States to be asked to sup- port an organization which refuses to act except on the basis of a double standard. Must Strengthen U.N. There is one consolation from all this. These United States ha~e never been guilty of aggression. We all recall the pain- ful decision of the U.S. government to join other nations of the U.N. in condemning our British and French friends' in- vasion of Suez. It was a decision that had to be taken, and we had the courage to do it. India, on the other hand, has spoken much about the value of the U.N but has done little to support its major policy actions in the interests of peace. Only in the Congo, did the Indians offer the U,S. any military assistance and here their motives were to help rid the Congo of colonialism. If aggression or turmoil had occurred in one of the Russian satellites in Eastern Europe, India would no doubt have remained piously aloof because it might have had to side with the West. We can all remember the indecision and the half hearted support given to the U.N. protestation against the Soviet rape of Hungary. This writer recalls very vividly witnessing a question- answer period between Krishna Menon and U.S. reporters several years ago. He was asked whether he agreed with the Russian annexation of the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. His answer then, speaks his outlook now. Menon said the Soviets did not annex the Baltic States; they had al- ways belonged to Russia; their creation was artificial; he could see nothing wrong in the Russian takeover. One final word is necessary. Some citizens will now de- mand our withdrawal from the U.N. I do not think this is, the answer. We must strengthen the organization through an insistence that members live up to the charter. The Goa in- cident has perhaps made this possible because the hypro- critical posture of one of the "peace champions" in the U.N. has now been exposed, el ine SANTIAGO- LAND. REFORM "For our part, conscious as we are, of the situation of the rural population and desirous of cooper- ating, not only by teaching the fundamental doctrine but also by giving concrete example, we have resolved in this year's plenary assembly to entrust the study of an eventual colonization of all the agricultural properties which are in possession and free use of the hierarchy to a committee of ex- perts. The committee will prepare the legal, canonical and preliminaries with a view of cilitating the easy access of agricultural workers to ownership of the land. Thus we intend to co- operate with the two goals of an effective land reform: better use of the land for the common good and a greater participation by the rural working families in the own- ership of and income from the land." Catholic Bishops of Chile, statement after their annual meeting this year. COMMENT: Land reform is the key to the salvation of Latin America. The Bishops pointed out that while the church lands are not nearly so extensive as is gen- erally believed, the sale of these lands will be a sacrifice since in- come from these lands has been used to maintain charitable and educational works of the Church. This is a step in the right direc- tion and sets an example for other landowners whose extensive pos- sessions cause peonage of millions of Latin Americans. LOS ANGELES- THE PRESS "The Catholic Press, almost alone, never lost sight of the fact that Stalin was a tyrant end that the communist government which he epitomized for so many years was an evil system. Richard M. Nlxon, former Vice President, to the Catholic Press Council annual conven. tion. CHICAGO- THE CHANGELESS "Our face to the world is lar ly the face of materialism, the root of change, instead of the im- age of spiritual reality, the heart of the changeless. Our tactic is more often dollars and deals than ideas and ideals. We plan to win the cold war by economics alone. We often fail to impress other nations and other people intel- lectually, culturally, morally and spiritually, because we really are not sure of ourselves on these higher levels. "This materialistic addiction is reflected in our practice of be- traying at home what we preach abroad; our deep consciousness of color and race, and our subtle denial of equal opportunity in em- ployment, housing, education, even in the administration of justice. "Change indeed has come into the world and more worldwide changing of sides may well be ex- pected. Whether the next change results in gain or loss for us and for the world depends in very large measure upon our ability to change our tactic of fighting ma- terialism with materialism, spiri- tual blindness versus spiritual blindness. The greatest riches of the West and our best arma- ments are the spiritual unchang- ing values that have given thrust and vitality to our revolutionary heritage." The Rev. Theodore M. lies- burgh, C.S.C president of Notre Dame University in addressing University of Chi- cago degree convocation in December. COMMENT: The basis of th~ continuing struggle in the world based on this premise: are unchanging values or is every. thing in a constant state of flux, including moral values. The strug. gle really lies in the domain of thought and philosophy rather than in arms and armaments. WILMINGTON- DECENCY "This is supposed to be a ChriS- tian country wherein the vast ma- jority of the population professes adherence to the sinless Christ, yet the fact remains that in the field of popular literature and of popular entertainment a very large number, if not the vast ma- jority, seems attracted by that which is contrary to Christian principles and ideals." The Most Rev. Michel IV. Hyle, bishop of Wilmington, in a pastoral letter. COMMENT: The fight against indecency in literatm:e and enter- tainment must be a continuing one; if the guard is dropped there is another onslaught. It seems the purveyers of filth keep working for the dollar and depending on the endless gullibility of human na- ture. #