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November 17, 1961     The Observer
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PAGE 10 THE OBSERVER .FRIDAY, NOVEMBER I0, 1961 High School News (Continued from Page 9) rpiritual director at Madonna, gave the introduction to "Career Day," given for the junior and senior girls. The entire day was dedicated to this annual program which offers an opportunity for the girls to see and hear men and women from various walks of life. The students chose between a lecture given by M. Louis Marone, an active member of Our Lady THEOLOGY FOR EVERYMAN The overworked expression "art for art's sake" has often managed to convince people that artlstlc expressions are free from moral and religious responsibility. The following commentary seeks to answer some of the questions concerning art and its uses. It was prepared at St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Mass, and reprinted from The (Boston) Pilot. Q. WHAT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL MEANING OF THE TERM ART? A. The term art designates any kind of skill or acquired ability of Good Counsel parish, on the Papal Volunteers or one by Miss which expresses itself in external production. The medieval phil- Ruth Clark of Northern Illinois osophers distinguished the arts from the sciences. Both arts and ,-iversit, i- DeKalb o- tap Peace Isciences were classified as virtues, good habits which facilitate the uaA j *~ . t41~ " " " " i Cor actlvahon of human powers of knowledge. Scmnces are virtues wh ch ps. ]bring perfection to the intellect in its search for the truth. The arts, Social Work, Teaching o " " Ion th~ other hand, bring perfection to the intellect in its direction of All the upperclassmen assem-I other powers of operation towards external achievement. The arts bled in the gym to listen to Mr. are thus distinguished from prudence, which perfects the intellect in James Weibler of the National the direction of our moral life. Association of Social Workers, who spoke an Family Welfare. THE WORD ART, THUS USED to designate what we call practical He explained the importance of skills, has come to have a more restricted reference to what are the work of child counselors, pro- known as the liberal arts, as distinguished from the illiberal arts, bation officers, and other jobs of which are pursued for economic purposes. The aim of the latter group t, ocal workers, is to prepare the student for the gaining of a livelihood. The liberal arts, so called because they were regarded as corresponding to the Next, Miss Mary Striegle, who desires and opportunities of free men, were rather in the direction of teaches both World History and the contemplative enjoyment of beauty. English III at Madonna presented . . . the teaching career and em- The term art thus came to lose its precise philosophical significance, phasized the demand for good teachers in the field of education, and to designate intellectual skills which would be more properly Secretarial careers in the toy- classified under the headings of science or wisdom. The medieval ernment and foreign service were classification of the liberal arts is still interesting and relevant. They discussed by Miss Judith Pierce are seven in number and are arranged in two groups. To the first of Moser Secretarial. school in group belong grammar, rhetoric and dialectic, dealing respectively Chicago. Following Miss Pierce, with the sciences of language, oratory and reasoning. The second Mis N -'ie troff r ~ group comprises arithmetic, geometry astronomy and music; these s ancy w s e, a mrmer ' " ' ~ -- i " ta Madonna student anrl ,r ~ arts deal with physical or reaz oojecl;s, rne nrst group s elemen ry; ,e ~ tri legal secretar~ for Matthew, Jor- tts branches were called trivial arts, the reference being to the - don Dean and Suhler of Aurora Ivmm' a ]unchon of three roads, well beaten and traveled over by s ke on He le al secretar- ca'llarge numbers (hence the current meaning of the word trivial). po~ g Y "] THE SECOND GROUP IS KNOWN as the quadrivial arts, from the ree. . . I corresponding word which designates a road with four branches. The mmrmal Pemod I seven liberal arts thus embrace a course of studies ranging from elementary subjects taught to all, through intermediary subjects per- taining to mathematics to higher studies in the sciences of the physical universe. The classification of the liberal arts was not fully developed until the Middle Ages. Its elements are found, however, in the classical writings of Greece and Rome and its influence has been felt up to the present time. w w * Q. HOW DID CHRISTIANITY INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARTS? A. The relation of the seven liberal arts with Christianity was decisive and profound, and the teachings of medieval philosophers and theologians on this matter has done much to clarify the principles which determine the place of artistic experience within the totality of human life. Christianity teaches men to regard education and culture in their relations to man's last end and to respect the restrictions which the general principles of morality place on every form of hu- man activity. Christianity has likewise lessened the difference be- The girls split to attend either a presentation by Miss Arletta Hartmarm from Crossroads, Chi- cago on International Student Cen- ter Work, or a conference held by Miss Sylvia Shepherd of the Chicago Daily Tribune. For the final period of lectures, Miss Lois Burmester, chief dietitian at St. Joseph Mercy hospital, spoke to those interested in Dietetics, while Doctor Heinmiller, a pathologist from St. Charles hospital, gave his speech on laboratory techno- logy. For the remaining hour and a half, the girls were permitted to talk with representatives from 21 ? new value and dignity under the influence of Christian culture: Chris- Uan truth has been presented as the source of all knowledge, and its goodness as the ultimate goal of all human striving. The seven liberal arts, while retaining their distinctive character, were appreciated especially for the value in leading the mind to possession of the secrets of wisdom. Q. HOW HAS THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON ART BEEN MODIFIED IN MODERN TIMES? A. In modern times, under the influence of philosophical systems which have their roots in Descartes and Kant, a new classification of the arts has developed which, paradoxically enough, corresponds more exactly with the original medieval notion of art as distinguished from science. The name Fine Arts has been given to a whole group of human activities in which intelligence and imagination seek m~ans of expressing their reactions. The fine arts are sometimes placed in two groups. The first, consisting of painting, drawing, architecture and sculpture, are called the arts of design, while poetry, music, dancing and dramatic art deal more immediately with subjective experiences. The distinguishing feature of the fine arts is their relation to man's love of beauty, rather than to the satisfaction of his material needs. From another point of view, perhaps somewhat less noble, the fine arts are defined as those which spring from man's impulse to do or to make certain things for the sake of the pleasure which results, or for the sake of the derived pleasure of contemplating these things when they are done or made by others. The nature of this impulse and the sources of the pleasure to which it leads have given rise to much speculation, the chief phases of which pertain to the study of Aesthetics. Q. WHAT IS MEANT BY AESTHETICS? A. Aesthetics may be defined as a systematic training in right thinking and feeling in matters of art. It thus involves a philosophy of the beautiful in nature and in art. It involves also a science of the arts based on these philosophical principles. Applied aesthetics is the accurate description of particular works of art; technical aesthetics, the training of the student of art for individual production. Aesthetics seeks the deepest foundations of the pleasure derived from art both in the laws of nature and in the laws of the human mind. THE STUDY OF AESTHETICS SHOULD DEVELOP the power of judgment. The student must develop insight into the technique of artistic production. He must be familiar with the varied manifesta- tions of beauty both in nature and in human life. He must strive for perfection in the exercise of some kind of art. Beyond all this, how- ever, he must have the power of intelligent artistic appreciation. Clear and orderly thinking is indispensable if aimless self-expression and serious philosophical errors are to be avoided. Of its very nature aesthetics admits several avenues of approach. The idealistic approach seeks out lofty subjects and overpowering execution. It looks for the divine and the spiritual in all things, even by way of allegory and symbolism. Its very loftiness guards against the debasement of art, but it may fall into the defect of departing too much from reality, and thus endanger the necessary relation of art with truth. ANOTHER APPROACH STRESSES FORM rather than content. It looks for those forms which are pleasing as they combine to make up the image of beauty. Its chief defect is to weaken the relation be- different colleges who were will- tween the liberal and the illiberal arts. tween form and content. Form should be the blossoming of an idea. ing !o answer any questions con- Labor, formerly regarded as unworthy of free men, has received a, To make form an end in itself is no less objectionable in art than it ,ce~'nmg,!helr schools and to gzve [is in metaphysics. Beauty is not something purely subjective; it has ]mormauve pamphlets to any an- fessed members At the nresent ~t"dP ~ J r% lits foundation in nature. The forms of artistic expression should be ~erestea smaent. " ~ l~,~ ,DIUC] LJcl 5 " " time the group is studying the: Y Y derived from reality, even though they may combine separate lm- BOYLAN rule of St. Francis and as its first ST. CHARLES -- The RockfordlPressi ns in ways which, as such, .are not objectively realized Austin Des Lauriers and corporal work of mercy it will federation of the young Christian an~ ~i~:a~)P:r~ta~ihi; ~:asl~t~t I~n]: i:tre:esf~:n~hait~lny. lItWhst:iv~;[et~ ram Caccia . . ~, e . ,give suipzlsebasketsas a Students announced recently that/ ROCKFORD "First' ha. [ " ",bring art into relation with nature and with the living reality of hu- been the word al'o%nd Boylan du-r~ Thanksgiving. gift to. the River arrangements are being made for man. experience. The realistic approach can become, defective, by m the a Bluff ntuslng home two stud da s for members in failure to safe ward the true worth of art whmh to a certain extent g p st few weeks, with two " Y Y ' g , must idealize reality. Art must seek its material in the world of ideas new organizations, a ticket drive and a score of lesser social, ath- Basketball Drive The Titan basketball drive was catapulted into full force Friday with Boylan students canvassing the city attempting to sell three tickets each. Incentive for putting the drive over the top is provided by an array of attractive prizes. Along social lines, the second annual Mother's Potluck dinner was held for football players and their fathers. Highlight of the eve- ning was the presentation of awards. A combination hayride, bonfire, and dance for students and their dates is being planned for Thurs- day, Nov. 23. Theme is "Turkey Trot ." the diocese. The first will be held at Mt. St. Mary Academy here Sunday, Nov. 26. The second is being planned for Feb. 5 at St. Edward high school in Elgin Scout Recognition Dinner At Rockton ROCKFORD -- Thirty-eight scouts of the Blackhawk area council will be honored Saturday, Nov. 25, at the third annual Eagle Scout recognition dinner to be held at the Wagon Wheel in Rockton at 6 p.m. Chairman for the event is La- Verne Edwards, superintendent of schools in Loaf River. The basilica over the tomb of l St. Francis in Assist stands on where malefactors werel~'y~ ground a# executed. Called The Hill of Hell," the Pope renamed it "TheI THE OBSERVER Hill of Paradise." I letic and scholastic functions ini- tiated. Tuesday, Nov. 4, Boylan's new- ly-elected student council met for the first time. It was led by Paul Shales, president, who was as- sisted by Pat Haverstuhl, vice president; Pat Dolan, secretary; and Steve Weeg, treasurer. Sister Mary Celsa, O.S.F moderated the meeting Form Third Order The above officers, along with sophomores Dennis Providica and Sue Nicholas, returned from the nationwide Catholic Youth Coun- cil convention in Buffalo, N.Y Tuesday and made a report to the student body. The Third Order, a religious or- ganization geared toward personal spiritual development, is another newly formed group on the Boy- lan scene. It will take the order about two years to acquire pro- I III ATTENTION: ALL ILLINOIS Your NON-PROFIT OF THE U.S.A. Special Limited Enrollment Now Open in this Area HOSPITAL BILLS IN FULL Semi.private rOom. After small deductible. Not included, radium, blood plasma, phone and TV. UP TO $5O0.0O TOWARDS DOCTOR'S CALLS; HOME, OFFICE OR HOSPITAL YOU AN INCOME WHEN DISABLED BY SICKNESS OR ACCIDENT alI at low non-profit rates MAIL COUPON H You Are a Catholic and Live in lll;noi. RO 10-20-61 To: Holy Fanflly Society, 231 Ruby Street, Joliet, Ill. Please rush me FREE FACTS about the Society's NON- PROFIT health protection Ior Illinois Catholics ONLY. I am interested in: [] Adding to My Present Plan [] FamiLy Group Protocli~m I-1 Individual Protection[] Income Protection [] Low Csst Life Insurance NAME ADDRESS CITY' STATE AGE PARISH '"-- '-- -- -" " -- "- n " -- -- as well as in the world of actual experience. It must overlook much that has become debased by human weakness and malice. It should regard the work of art as beginning at the point at which nature it- self realizes perfection. THE NATURALISTIC APPROACH GOES STILL FURTHER in in- sisting not only on fidelity to nature, but in suppressing everything that is idealistic or beyond the reach of the senses. Those who follow the naturalistic approach are in danger of sinking to the level of crudity and sensuousness. From another point of view this approach seeks to defend the autonomy of art and its independence of religion and morality. It thus reveals an irreconcilable opposition with Chris- tion principles, which imply the essential subjection of all forms of human activity to the laws of God. Artistic expression cannot become either the bIind and aimless re- lease of human impulses or the independent and undisciplined theoriz- ing of understanding. Like all properly human activity, it must pro- reed from a free and responsible will. It affects the whole human be- ing; it cannot be considered as pertaining to the functioning of any one power. It must be brought into relation with man's'highest striv- ing; it cannot overlook, or abstract from, any essential element in human nature to emphasize impulses of a particular kind. ART MUST HAVE A MORAL AND RELIGIOUS AIM, even though in its actual expression it is free of responsibility for the objectives proper to religion and morality "Art for art's sake" is a principle which holds good only in relation,to the immediate goals of artistic expression. A work of art must conform to the laws of art as they are formulated by competent authorities. Ultimately, however, the arts must serve the higher interests of human nature and must give glory to GOd. Your druggist is more than a businessman he is properly trained like a doctor, lawyer, teacher. He is part of your corn- munity's guardian team . . . helps pro- tect your family from serious disease. The man your MD trusts t0 fill ! his Rxs Just as you trust your doctor, you can trust your reg- istered pharmacist to fill all prescriptions with profes- sional precision. Prompt service always. Just call or stop at the Drug Store in your parish. We recommend that you patronize these Home Owned Drug Stores for family needs. They are ready to serve you in a qualified and friendly manner. 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