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November 10, 1961     The Observer
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By FATHER JOHN RYAN PLEASE EXPLAIN THE ROGATION DAYS? The Rogation Days, also called the Lesser Litanies, are ob- served on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before Ascension. The ritual in the celebration of these days calls for a proces- sion during which the Litany of the Saints is sung, followed by the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. These days are set aside especially to supplicate the mercy of God and His bless- ings on mankind. Similar to the Rogation Days, and often confused with them, is the observance of the Greater Litanies, on April 25 each year. This day is celebrated similarly with processional litany and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and is regarded as a prayer for the harvest of that year. It was originally instituted to sup- plant a pagan feast which was celebrated on that day. It is called Greater or Major Litany because it is of greater age and longer custom than the Rogation Days, the Lesser Litany. ,k -k , HOW DO WE KNOW THAT WE WILL MEET OUR DE- CEASED PARENTS AND LOVED ONES IN HEAVEN? Through the doctrine of the Communion of Saints and an understanding of the bond of love, Beatific Charity, which unites all the Blessed in Heaven in the Love of God. The na- tural love that we have for our fellow creatures here on earth is not destroyed by the supernatural but, rather, it is perfected by it. Therefore, those whom we love here in this world, in an imperfect way, are loved in perfect charity, in a love called Beatific, which is the counterpart of the Beatific Vision. Let us not forget that through the Redemption, the bond of love among the faithful is more than a mere relationship of the natural order. The Holy Spirit dwelling within us, unites us in one Body, the Mystical Body of Christ. It is a communica- tion of God's Love to us by which we love one another in Him. This bond of love is not broken, though death may mean separation for a while but rather, it is hallowed and made perfect in Heaven. Our Divine Savior, having ascended into Heaven, certainly welcomed His earthly mother into His com- pany Oll her Assumption and enjoys her company as she en- joys the Beatific Vision. He also knows His beloved Apostle John and the others who served Him so faithfully in the apostolic band. Our Lord is the example for all the Blessed; they also are joined with their loved ones as He is, for all eternity. -k -k -k IF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IS RIGHT IN THE EYES OF THE CHURCtt, ON WHAT BASIS IS IT JUSTIFIED? The infliction of capital punishment for crime is not contrary to the teaching of the Catholic Church. The power of the State to sentence culprits to death and execute them has a basis in both Sacred Scripture and theological teaching. The earliest divine pronouncement that seems to sanction the death penal- ty is found in Genesis 9,6 "Whosoever shall shed man's blood, his blood shall be shed; for man was made to the image of God." More explicit are the texts contained in the 21st chapter of Exodus, in a code of legislation which prescribes death for many offenses: "He that striketh a man with the will to kill him shall be put to death" (12); "He that striketh his father or mother shall be put to death" (15); "He that shall steal a man and sell him, being convicted of guilt, shall be put to death" (16); "He that curseth his father or mother shall die the death (17). From this it is clear that divine law permits legitimate au- thority among men to exercise this right over life. There have been many movements against the practice of capital punish- ment and in many countries, the law does not exercise this right. The experiment of substituting life imprisonment, or other penalties such as hard labor, has not yet proved any- thing conclusive as to its effectiveness. According to Catholic moral theology, a criminal may be executed if juridical proof has established moral certainty that he has committed grave crime for which the State, in the interest of the common welfare, inflicts capital punishment and if someone has been authorized by the State to execute the sentence. The right of the State to inflict the punishment of death as a penalty for grave crimes against society, is neces- sary to its well-being, not only as a vindictive punishment but also. as a salutary deterrent to crime. St. Thomas Aquinas sees capital punishment as lawful and just, because the criminal has, by his crime, become a de- stroyer of the common good and has fallen from the order of right reason. The law protecting society" is justified in taking measures strong enough to punish and deter crime. If that measure is the death of the criminal, the State can exercise its right. IS IT CORRECT TO SAY THAT PENTECOST IS THE "BIRTHDAY OF THE CHURCH"? In the Encyclical 'Mystici Corporis Christi' Pope Pins XII states that "the Divine Redeemer began the building of the mystical temple of the Church when by his preaching He an- nounced His precepts; Hecompleted it when He hung glorified on the Cross; and He manifested and proclaimed it when He sent the Holy Ghost as Paraclete in visible form on His Disci- ples." Authors are not in full agreement on the precise mo- ment at which the Church conld be said to be properly and fully instituted. Some say that it was when Christ gave the primacy to Peter and the Apostles after the Resurrection. Others say that it was when He sent the Holy Ghost on the first Pentecost. Still others say that the Church came into existence in the full and proper sense when Christ died on the Cross. Others finally at the Last Supper. The passage quoted above would seem to imply that the Church was instituted with the completing of Our Lord's Sacrifice on the Cross, and that thus Good Friday would be regarded as the birthday of the Church. The words of the Pope do not seem, however, to be so definite as to exclude entirely from consideration the other opinions which have been mentioned. Queries for "QUESTIONS YOU K" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a personal reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. ~ 55 k$'~ Vol. XVI, No. 45 ~ 1 November 10, 1961 THE MOS1 REVEREND LORAS T LANE Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Managlng Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women's Page Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Business ROBER1 J STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer, published weekly at 1060 W. Stephenson St Freeport, Illinois. is the official newspaper of the Catholff Diocese of Rockford. Second class postage paid at Freeport Illinois. Subscriptions $4.00 per year prepaid m the United States ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER. 1260 NORTH CHURCH SIREE1 ROCKFORD ILLINOIS POSTMASTER: Please send form 3579 to the OBSERVER, 1260 North Church Street, Rockford, Illinois. WASHINGTON LETTER The ht to Know The Defense Department's present policy gov- erning censorship of public statements corcerning the cold war made by military personnel has caused a great deal of confusion. There are many who look upon it as an infringement on the right of free speech and as a detriment to national unity of purpose. Encouragement was given by the recent re- marks of General James A. Van Fleet in Lake- land, Fla. The general, enroute to a special assign- ment as consultant to the Secretary of the Army, took time out to "sound off" on some personal, and surely deep-seated, convictions Among other items he blamed Adlai Stevenson for the failure of the Cuban "invasion" (this accusation was re- tracted later). He also stated: 'West Germany and France would not fight with us in Berlin and I don't think we should fight for them.' His views on the loss of Berlin and Laos to the Reds are shared by many others. The point at the moment is not whether we agre or disagree with General Van Fleet. The point is that he made his statements and apparent- ly was not censored for them. But the Defense De- partment has stated that "~an Fleet will be free to state what he wants, whenever he is not actually engaged in his new military duties. In other words, once he has taken up his new tasks in the service of his country he will not be able to express his personal opinions. With the world in its present precarious posi- tion there is every reason to be alarmed. There I I I I II I I I I I I I III III I I I Ili I I I I I I REAPINGS AT RANDOM O BY GERARD E. SHERRY Mr. and Mrs. William Bowman of San Franciscio are a typical American couple. They are a quiet family at peace with their neighbors, and, so they thought, with the rest of the world. Alas, things didn't work out that way. For more than a year they suffered abuse, including van- dalism of their home; and numerous telephone calls marked by obscenities and anti-Semetic remarks. Yes, the Bowmans are Jews. It seems to some people that this is a crime in San Francisco. Recently a group of youths were arrested and charged with being responsible for the sufferings of the Bowmans. They appear to be typical American youths--good scho- lastically, and coming from responsible parents. Yet, here they are accused of re- sponsibility for the crimes against the Jew- ish couple. What is more shocking is the fact that iii::i::!::ii during the preliminary court hearing, fur- ther telephone and other attacks were made against the Bowmans, in which anti-Semi- tism played a role. The judge hearing the case did not at- tribute the additional attacks to the accused youths: but he did warn them and any others listening that he would not tolerate such conduct. Bright Star in Sorry Affair One would have thought in this enlightened age that anti- Semitism was a thing of the past. Sad to relate, this is by no means the case. It has happened in San Francisco in relation is every reason to hope that those who know will inform the people of the developments and the possibilities of survivai. It would be fatal to permit ourselves to be lulled into a sense of unrealistic security. It is past time for those in the know to keep the people informed. It is a good thing that men like General Van Flet have the courage to speak out. It is unfortunate that a veil of secrecy must be wrapped around their thinking and their utterances. Urgings from Uruguay While world leaders show concern over the possible nuclear decimation of countless millions of people, propaganda persists for the deliberate large-scale reduction of populations through birth control, particularly in so-called underdeveloped countries. This propaganda is tied in with the contention that some areas are overpopulated now, and that the whole world will have a "population explosion" in time. It is interesting to note that many of the so called underdeveloped countries are in the south- ern Hemisphere. People living in this half of the world are expected to suffer least of all from the long-range damage to health experts predict will result from the recent Soviet Russian nuclear bomb tests. From this, one could argue that it is proposed to reduce artificially the number of those people who, in time, will be the healthiest on the globe. In recent press talk about "population explo- an I II I I I I I II sion" and birth control, few seemed to pay atten- tion to a highly important speech by' Felipe Her- rera, of Argentina, head of the Inter-American Development Bank, who said to the Inter-Ameri- can Economic and Social Council meeting in Uru- guay: Some outstanding authorities on economic de- velopment, in discussing the world population ex- plosion, strongly advocate the adoption of birth control measure. We believe there is no urgent need for such measures in Latin America. Al- though it is true that the population of Latin America is expected to rise to 250 million by 1970 and to 600 million by the year 2000, we should not forget that our Hemisphere has all kinds of untapped resources in land, in power, in marine, and in underground wealth . . . Our problem lies, not in overpopulation, but in a better distribution of our inhabitants, not only within our individual countries, but also--and this is even more import- ant throughout the Hemisphere as a whole If we have always been highly concerned with the need for attracting population from other parts of the world, is there any reason why we should hesitate to consider a resettlement and migration policy that would make it possible for our own inhabitants to open 'new frontiers'? "In my opinion, those 600 million Latin Ameri- cans who will constitute our population by the end of this century ensure a vital and dynamic fulfill- ment of the potential of our Hemisphere as a whole. They will permit and, indeed, force effec- tive utilization of all our currently underdeveloped or poorly channeled resources in Latin America." SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM I I Commu O One of the weaknesses of those who feel they have a monopoly on "anti-Communism" is that they confuse the "intent" of the Com- munists with actual accomplish- ment. They read somewhere that the Commies plan to infiltrate American youth in the colleges or they are plotting a drive on the trade unionists in the labor move- ment. The monopoly anti-Communist crusaders immediately jump to the conclusion that this "threat" has already become a reality. The next thing you hear is the "per- centage" of Communists or com- comsympathizers in the labor un- ions or among college students or the Catholic clergy depend- ing upon the particular field of "research" coming under the survey of the magic wand. (Looking into his crystal ball, ex- candy-maker Welch, founder of the John Birch society, has dis- covered that one-half of one per cent of the Catholic priests in America are what he calls "corn- syrups." The percentage would be higher except for the fact that the Catholic candidate for the priesthood has ten years of study before ordination. Since Mr. Welch has had no training for the priest- hood, the presumption is that he is in grave danger of becoming a comsymp at any moment.) Red Activity Small When the CIO booted eleven Communist-dominated Interna- tional Unions out of its ranks in 1949, the cascade of Communist infiltration and influence in the American labor movement was reduced to a dozen litle trickles in various parts of the country. To date they have not been able to dam up any one of these strug- gling little splash waters to form a permanent reservoir of power. In the forties, the United Elec- trical Workers, with a handful of dedicated, died-in-the-wool Soviet FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. simps was the hub of all Commu- nist activity in the labor move- ment. It had talent, alert direc- tors, money and drive. It was the hub of the wheel from which all other Commie la- bor units spread like spokes in the wheel. Vigilance Needed Today it is but a shadow of its former image, due for the most part to a grass roots anti-Com- munist campaign by the Interna- tional Union of Electrical Work- ers. There are signs, however, that it is beginning to make an effort toward a "come-back." The stirrings should be watched with diligent alertness, but there is no reason at present to start pushing the panic buttons. Included in the need for vigi- lance would be a good hard look at Jimmy Hoffa's alliance with Har- ry Bridges' West Coast Longshore- roans outfit and the mid-West Mine, Mill and Smelters gang. Some years ago I made the ob- servation that if the Communists and the "Mob" should ever get together, a day of proximate dan- ger would be dawning. Commu- nists and gangsters are brothers under the skin. They share a com- mon unwritten philosophy. Only the techniques of organization and the fields of operation are differ- ent. Nadir of Nonsense Hoffa is neither a gangster nor a Communist. Many of his best friends, however, are members of a mob and he has publicly ad- mitted an alliance with two labor organizations that were thrown out of the CIO as Communist-domi- nated, dual union renegades from genuine American trade union- ism. It goes without saying that the Commies find great comfort and consolation in having so doughty a defender and so real- istic an ally as Jimmy Hoffa. Recently the Teamster Presi- dent was hailed before the East- land committee as a witness on the Teamsters' alliance with the Communist-dominated misfits. His defense reached the nadir of nonsense and naivete. In effect he said: If Ambassa- dor Thompson can deal with ghrushchev and the U.S. Govern- ment can compel Communists to sign anti-Communist affidavits in food faith or go to jail, so too, may he, Hoffa, make the kind of alliances he has -- legally. (If his legal advisers encouraged him to make such an explanation, they are as ignorant of the point at issue as Hoffa showed himself or pretended to be.) Committee Useless Personally, I don't think a Con- gressional committee can get very far with a talented word-twister on an issue of this kind. An investigation of this type by a Congressional committee may get some notoriety in the press and indirectly acquaint the pub- lic with facts they had not known before. But I doubt that it serves a legislative purpose; the only purpose, incidentally, which such a committee has for its existence. This kind of maneuvering by a labor leader belongs in the realm of public opinion and public morality. It is not the kind of activity that can be directly and effectively curbed or abolished by law. Can Only Wait The primary responsibility for acquainting the public with facts detrimental to the common goo/] rests upon the free press in a democracy. The first responsi- bility for taking action, once the facts are known, bears heavily upon the officers and the rank- and-file members of the union which is being dragged into un- holy alliances without the consent of the membership. A Public Board of Inquiry, sanctioned by government, might serve a useful purpose under particular circumstances, but Con- gressional committees are formed to make laws, not headlines. In the meantime we must pa- tiently await the crystal-ball analysis of the John Birch society to learn what percentage of the Teamsters Union are Commu- nists. O ,em urvival to the Bowmans. It happens in New York, in Baltimore, and many other areas of the country. We are apt to think only of discrimination against Negroes. Unfortunately, the Jewish minority still suffers its disabilities. Real estate men, poli- ticians, and extremists of all shades of opinion, find the Jews a profitable target for their hate and distrust. There's one bright star in the whole of this sorry business of the Bowmans. Mayor George Christopher of San Francisco invited Mr. and Mrs Bowman to City Hall last week and gave them a key to the city The Mayor also offered an official apology for the year of abuse the couple had suffered at the hands of the group of youths. Not Common Teen Practice The Mayor said "I fee; the reputation of San Francisco has been unfortunately tarnished. I just want to extend a friendly hand to the Bowmans, to let them know we regret this inci- dent and to give them moral encouragement and to commend their forbearance. I want to assure them San Francisco is not represented by what transpired . . . This office is avail- able to them at all times." What about the accused youths, whose ages varied from 16 to 18. We said before they looked like typical American boys. However, I would venture to suggest that what they are ac- cused of can not be called Americanism. 1 would go further and suggest that such actions are not common among our youth today. Our young people are accused of every term of deliquency in the books, but I don't think anti-Semitism is a common practice among them. Decidedly Un-American Adults are normally the only ones guilty of religious bigotry and haie. Maybe the increase of such bigotry, both political and religious, has rubbed off on some of our youth. It has been claimed in some circles that young people are not as rebellious in religion and political matters as they were years ago. And maybe this observation has invited some of them to prove the statistics wrong. Whatever the cause or the rea- son, it is most decidely un-American Respect for and concern tor minority groups should be the spiritual task of Catholics. After all, we, in the past, have suffered much of the abuse and hate now being leveled at Negros and to a smaller extent the Jews of this country. Need Aggressive Catholics Those Catholics and other citizens who are forever itching to do something to protect our American way of life in the struggle against the Communist menace could well divert some of their energies to this area of our national life. If we cannot exercise Christian love and Democratic ideal on our own very doorsteps how can be ever be prepared to withstand the insidious and subversive tactics of international Com- munism. Catholic organizations would find some useful prayer, study and action possible on the subject of minorities We should be more aggressive in this regard in our community organi- zations. We should cooperate in any civic effort to create peace and harmony. It may be claimed that the sufferings of the Bowman fami- ly in San Francisco are not typical But the very fact that it has taken place should make us all the more determined that it will not happen in our community. And it will not hap- pen if we see the image and likeness of God in our neighbor. umn ine JAMAICA, N.Y.- FREEDOM "Every school, public and pri- vate, has a religious and philo- sophical orientation because neu- trality on the fundamental ques- tion of God is impossible . . . In fact, the exclusion of God from the classroom constitutes the es- tablishment of secularism as the religion of the public schools . . . The power of secularists in na- tional politics is clearly demon- strated by their ability to kill all federal aid to education legisla- tion that does not discriminate against all children who attend Protestant, Catholic and Jewish schools. "If, while we harness our nation in defense of freedom, we never- theless suppress more and more of the freedoms of our people by coercing conformity to an ex- panding number of state-estab- lished orthodoxies, we are em- bracing the very tyranny we pro- fess to abhor. Freedom cannot survive in a context of enforced conformity." The Roy. Virgil C. Bhim, 83, political science depart- ment Marquette University in address to teachers' congress at St. John University. PHILADELPHIA- ACTIVE LAYMEN "We can make the world holy only by penetrating the world The secular world is the mission terri- tory of the lay Christian world, It will be pentrated, reconstructed and restored in the light of Christ's teaching, if we do it. As Catholic citizens and citizens who are Catholics we must weary our- selves in mind and body in being witnesses to the Christian mes- sage, in helping to solve the ever- changing problems of our times, We cannot make the world holy by washing our hands in innocence of the world, but only by entering into the world, shorings its legiti- mate hopes, bearing its heavy burdens and assisting it to the purpose which God has designed for it." Mr. Martin H. Work, execu- tive director National Council of Catholic Men, speaking to LaSalle College Alumni As- sociation meeting. BALTIMORE- PSYCHIATRY "Since grace builds on nature, faith will operate most effectively in the mature, well-adjusted, emo- tionally healthy individual But it is wrong to imply that will power, grace, prayer, and 'positive thinking' can by them- selves cure sick minds. This ascribes to religion and the su- pernatural life powers God never intended them to have and does an injustice to both religion and psychiatry The Sacrament of Penance is intended to relieve conscious guilt by forgiving re- sponsible sins. Therapy, on the other hand, deals with the un- conscious content of man's mind, here and now beyond his control, and divorced from responsible choice. So long as the psychiatrist concerns himself with these neu- rotic guilts -- the enslaving, un- controllable forces in his patient --he is not invading the world of the confessional, and he cannot violate Catholic morality." The Rev. George G. Hag- mater, C.S.P head of Paulist Institute for Religious Re- search in" lecture at Notre Dame of Maryland College. NOTRE DAME- A TRADITION LOST "Religion used to be the center of our culture and theology the center of academic life. Today, in spite of many public gestures, conferences and dialogues, there is still an almost abnormal fear in general academic circles to ad- mit real theological discussmn; and religion is still dismissed to the private feelings and conduct of the individual." The Rev. Chester A. Soleta, C.S.C vice president tor academic affairs at University of Notre Dame XX. BROOKLYN- COMMUNITY AFFAIR "The American Catholic has a very special obligation to enter actively into community activities. We have much to give and we are derelict in our duty to the degree that we separate ourselves from other people--our fellow Ameri- cans Teachers, executives, businessmen have a positive mor- al duty to support, maintain and strengthen our civic, cultural, scientific and religious institu- tions." Mr. Edward D. Re, chair- man Foreign Claims Settle- ment Commission of the U.S to Fourth Degree Knights of Columbus.