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October 27, 1961     The Observer
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October 27, 1961

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By FATHER JOHN RYAN I HAVE TAKEN A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF MONEY FROM SOMEONE. MAY I SATISFY MY OBLIGATION BY GIVING THE A MOUNT TO THE POOR? No. Restitution must be made to the rightful owner. It can be done anonymously or through a third party. You have no obligation to disclose your identity but, on the other hand, you have no right to donate another's money to the poor. The obli- gation of making restitution "can be satisfied by giving to the poor or charity only when the rightful owner is not known, cannot be found or no longer lives IS A NATION EVER JUSTIFIED IN WAGING A WAR OF &GGRESSION? Catholic theologians, in discussing the question of the condi- tions under which war may be justly waged, hold generally that only the need of defending the country against danger of attack which cannot be otherwise warded off will justify war. They hold further that every possible means short of war must be resorted to and that only when every other effort to avert disaster has failed may a na- tion embark on a military campaign. When a country is actually attacked by an unjust aggressor nation, there can be no question of the justice of counterattack as a means of defense. When it is known with moral certainty that an enemy nation is planning an attack, measures may be taken to guard against it, even when the attack is not imminent. The principles indicated above would ju, stify a war of aggression when other- wise the attack of an enemy nation would be certain to occur, and no other means of preventing it or meeting it successfully would be available or effective. The inevitable effects of a world war are so frightful that the very nature of warfare as it has developed in modern times makes its avoidance imperative for the security of the nations of the world. Meantime, however, the only defense against ag- gression is to maintain military potential equal to that which might be used in an enemy attack. HOW LONG IS IT NOW THAT THE PENALTY OF EXCOM- MUNICATION IS NOT ATTACHED TO THE SIN OF MISSING ONE'S EASTER DUTY? Since the Promulgation of the new Code of Canon Law in 1918. The obligation of fulfilling that precept, however, is still a most serious one which binds all the faithful from the time that they have attained the use of reason. By general law, the Easter Duty time is the brief period between Easter Sunday and Low Sunday (two weeks). The time is extended for the faithful in this country from the first Sunday in Lent to Trinity Sunday. WHY HAS NOT THE THIRD SECRET OF FATIMA BEEN REVEALED EVEN THOUGH 1960 HAS PASSED BY? There are many misunderstandings about this secret. Al- though the proper Church authorities were permitted to open the letter last year and thus learn this secret, there was no obligation to do so, and no obligation to reveal its contents even after it had been opened. Moreover, this entire matter lies within the theological area of private revelations and these are not needed by the Church in its work of salvation. Private revelations help the receiver of them and others who make proper use of their matters. Even so, one does not need private revelations to be saved. The year 1960 gave occasion for much consideration of the Fatima apparitions. Unfortunately, some played upon the mo- tive of fear to create confusion in the minds of many by threatening all kinds of evils to the world. A true fear is part of the Fatima story; but it is rather a fear of hell, and a fear for those who refuse to repent of tfleir sins. Less talk of world calamities and none of eternal condemnation should be the characteristic of the true Fatima devotee. We may wonder if the present anxiety to learn the final part of the Fatima messages is prompted by true devotion to Mary's purpose rather than by mere curiosity and desire for the unusual. The test can easily be made. How have you accepted the previous parts of the Secrets? Do you say the Rosary every day as our Blessed Mother requested? What penance and re- paration for sinners do you offer, as she also requested? Until we become much more dedicated to the requests al- ready known from Fatima, it does not become us to press for further information. HOW FAR MUST A SPONSOR FOR AN ADULT CONVERT GO IN WATCHING OVER THAT PERSON'S PRACTICE OF HIS RELIGION? The godparent of an adult converted to the Catholic Faith has the same responsibility as one who incurs that relationship with an infant at Baptism. He is to see to the proper observ- ance of the practice of his Faith, help and encourage him to adjust himself in the new way of life he has chosen and cor- rect him, as far as possible, in any wrongdoing or neglect. Godparents of adult converts can be very helpful to them by making themselves available for advice, information and guid- ance, especially through the first stages of the concert's ef- forts to become familiar with the practice of his Faith. Queries for "QUESTIONS YOU ASK" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a personal reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. "Suppose God granted you a life of 70 years," wrote Bishop Gannon on one occasion. "How would it be distributed?" Statistics he reported divided these 70 years as follows: Three years would be spent in education, eight years in amusements; six years at the dinner table; five years in transportation; four years in conversation; 14 years in work; three years in read- ing: 24 years in sleeping. Then Bishop Gannon put a personal question and answer: "How much time do you give to God? If you went to Mass every Sunday and prayed for five minutes every morning and evening, you would be giving five months to God; five months out of 70 years of your life." The conclu- sion is obvious. --Banner ~'~SS kc~'J Vol. XVI, No. 43 ~ 1 Oct. 27, 1961 THE MOS1 REVEREND LORAS T. LANE Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women's Page Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAHO'MEARA ." Business ROBERTJ. STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer, printed waek[y at 27 South State Street, Freeport, Illinois, is the offlciai newspaper of the Catholic Diocese of Rockford. Second Class postage paid at Freeport Illinois. Subscriptions $4.00 per year prepaid in the United States ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER, 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREET ROCKFORD ILLINOIS POSTMASTER: Please eend form 3579 to the OBSERVER, 1260 North Church Street, Rockford, Illinois. an rds x pons All Christ the Kinc It is always interesting and sometimes amazing to investigate the origins of customs which have somehow become part of living in America. One of the most unusual is the transformation which has taEen place in the observance of Halloween. It ap- proaches a travesty. For centuries All Hallows Eve was strictly a day of religious observance preceding the holy day, Feast of All Saints. As such there was the tra- ditional fast and abstinence with- processions hon- oring the Saints of God. It is not unlikely that the custom'of dressing like orle's patron saint was part of this observance in certain localities. Then in our own country, influenced as it was by the puritanical spirit of undoing anything that smacked of Romanism, the custom of making this day an occasion fo;'eerie tricks by spooks and gob lins became very popular, While we ate not opposed to good honest fun for the young set, we do feel that something worth- while has been lost in the metamorphasis of Hal- loween. Many of our schools have resurrected the practice of giving some extra time on All Saints Eve to emphasizing the role of the Saints and their beneficient interest in man's welfare. This is a , more appropriate preparation for Halloween. This "new" custom features readings, skits and dramas with appropriate custumes. This surely is a better way to commemorate the day rather than the spook-and-goblin version with unpractical tricks to plague the populace. The Communists--whoare after all---very prac- tical, have gone all out in a campaign to flood the world with their literature. In 1960 the literary productions in both Russia and China had a tre- mendous increase. During last year, the USSR exported 100 mil- lion books in 25 different languages. Red China produced more than 20,000 copies of some 600 titles in foreign languages. Czechoslovakia published some 2 million volumes in 16 foreign languages for shipment abroad. These figures from the United States Informa- tion Agency are interesting and also startling. They pinpoint the continued effort of the Commu- nists to gain control of the world. They use every means possible to accomplish this end. They are : well aware that printed word is perhaps their most valuable weapon. The content of these books is another striking proof of the Communist aims: there are text at all levels, ideological literatflre, anti-religious and anti-American writings, and children's books. Not much pulp is wasted on aimless and entertaining novels. Every book has,a purpose. Tons of this material of propaganda continue to flow into our own country. The shipments to the Middle East and to Europe remain the same as before. But in 1960 there were marked increases in the shipments to Africa, Latin America and the Far East. Can there be any doubt concerning the inexorable time table of conquest? The last Sunday of Odtober is an important Feast Day in the Church's calendar. This day was designated Feast of Christ the King by Pope Plus XI in 1925. The significance of this is very import- ant for our troubled world. To our ears accustomed only to the language of democracy the term "king" does nSot have the depth that it had in other places and other times. However, the term as used in the designation of this feast has nothing tO do with th-e trappings and passing glory of kings of earthly kingdoms. The Gospel of the Feast of Christ the King is taken from the description of Christ's trial before Pilate during which the representative of earthly power asked in all seriousness: Art Thou A King? Christ's kingship or right to rule is from His nature as the Son of God who became man. As Plus XI declared in his letter establishing this feast: "It should be that He reign in the minds and the wills of men." The world sorely needs the guidance which comes through the kingship of Christ, if all men but recognized this title won on the battlefield of Calvary. The attempts to run the affairs of he world totally apart and in contradiction to the plan of God for man's happiness have and will continue to bring only confusion and discord. It is most ap- propriate at all times but especially on the Feast of Christ the King to petition heaven that mankind will:rec0gnize and observe the reign of justice and peace which is the kingdom of Christ. II I III I 1 I II II I III I I II I II I SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM III . I *~1 I I I II II F ' 2' Z F E~ s' 4 O IIIIIII I /I I I / /" " :" x': FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. The wildcat strikes which fol- lowed upon the General Motors- UAW agreement at the national level point up a serious defect somewhere in the collective bar- gaining structure of the two parties. The national bargaining agents for both the union and in. dustry had come to a satisfactory agreement. It is true the contract had not actually been signed. But the word ,of the representa- tives of these two parties was as good as their bond. The agree- ment had been made at the na- tional level. It was dependent, however, on the settlement of local griev- ances which had to be incor- porated into the contract. Reuther sent a telegram to officials of local unions informing local of- ficials that if working condition issues were not settled at a cer- tain deadline date, they could feel free to go out on strike. The deadline was~ reached and there were still thousands of small is- sues still left undetermined. The wildcats were on. buggy approach. The accumula- tion of issues and the pressure of time for their settlement gives the union the advantage of hold- ing the strike weapon over the heads of management under the circumstances. If each of these local disputes were to be settled op a week-to- week basis, or a month-to-month basis, before the critical period of a short-term deadline came into the picture, the probability of wild- cat strikes or a nation-wide stop- page would be reduced to a minimum or made almost im- possible. Moral Responsibility A primary requisite for a just and honest strike is that every other alternative has first been explored and found wanting. ,Is there a suitable alternative which can and should be used? To my mind there certainly is. Incorporated into the contract should be a provision that proper social machinery be set up to solve these local irritants on a week-to-week or a month-to- month basis. An industry council should be established. It could be constituted with representatives from union and management alone or it could be a tri-partite type of council which would include representatives from the public. a simpler, more logical, more in- telligent approach is clearly indi- cated; one that gives a much greater assurance of justice for all; of mutual benefits for all. But suppose the issues in dis- pute are in areas which were not included in the original contract? In that case, the phase of the con- tract which deals with local work- ing conditions could be kept open or a provision put into the contract granting authority to the estab- lished council to deal with any issue arising within the area of the non-management relationships. No Other Choice Do I say that the International Union and the giant industry have an obligation in social justice to adopt this policy rather than to endanger their relationship at the end of each contract by harmful strikes? In the automobile indus- try I believe social justice does demand the acceptance of such an alternative. Collective bargaining did not be- gin yesterday in the automobile industry. We have seen a mar- velous development of healthy union-management relations in this industry for the 'past twenty years. They have reached a stage of maturity at which this step could and should be taken. Bricks vs Brains Impossible Situation This council would first provide UAW and American Motors According to press reports, mediating and conciliating sere- made a precedent-shattering there were about 40,000 issues ice. If that were not sufficient "break-through" when they in- spread throughout the country for the purpose, self-imposed and serted a profit sharing clause in which had to be settled within a deadline that allowed about three weeks time. On the face of it, the task was impossible. These disagreements had been allowed to accumulate for about two or three years (since the signing of the last contract.) Suddenly they erupted into a strike for the evident reason that no other alternative had been pro- vided for. It is right here that the structural weakness of the col- lective bargaining process shows itself. Advantages And Antidote The union, evidently, is willing to go along with this horse-and- mutually agreed-to arbitration would be the next step. This is not the same as calling in an outside arbitrator. The Cguncil it- self would be equipped with the powers of arbitration. Matter Of Common .Sense Why do we say this alternative must be used rather than the strike weapon? For the simple reason that common sense dic- tates it; it anticipates and obvi- ates the damages that come from a strike; it credits the agents on both sides of the industrial fence to be.intelligent men of good faith and good will Intelligent men do not resort to drastic action when their contract this year. An in- dustry council "break-through" as an antidote to strike fever is overdue In accord with the principles of social justice and the dictates of a sound social philoso- phy, I don't think they have any other choice. No man would build a plant with a foundation that would jeop- ardize the structure of the whole building after it had been erect- ed. Prudence and experience are accepted as reliable guides in the putting up of a brick and mortar building. Why should reasonable men consider it "reasonable" to ignore these assets .in the estab- lishing of their human relations? REAPINGS AT RANDOM Ioween, Time By GERARD E. SHERRY Next Tuesday is Halloween and the family will prepare for disrupted scenes as children vie for the best costumes to display in the neighborhood. There will be fairy queens, gypsies, rabbits, angels, devils, brides, grooms, and a host of other char- acters running around the neighborhood. Not to be forgotten will be the witches who tradi- tionally oil their brooms and take off for the never-never land of candy and cookies. It is all great fun except for the fact that there are also an awful lot of tummy aches through an excessive enjoyment of the goodies which are available from door to door. This is truly a night when youngsters have their fling and enjoy themselves. Regu- lar bedtimes are delayed, and for once television sets get a little rest. Night of Remembrance In recent years Halloween in this country' has taken on an added significance. It is a night of laughter and gaiety on the part of youngsters and a night of neighborliness. More important, however, it is now a night of remembrance. This because while our kids have plenty there are millions of other children around the world who have nothing. And it is to those needy children that we have all been asked to give some thought. This can be accomplished by welcoming the Hal- loween collector for the United Nations Children's fund. The UNICEF collection has taken on an official character inasmuch as it enjoys the support of the United States gov- ernment, and has had such support in its decade of existence. In a message of congratulations and support to UNICEF, President Kennedy said "the world's children offer our great- est promise for the future." He said the fund "has worked tirelessly and effectively across national boundaries to help children escape the threat of hunger and disease." This pro- gram, he said, has already had a real impact upon today's children, "and its benefits will be felt even more keenly by the millions of children to come." UNICEF "has caught the imagination of our people--especially our nation's children whose Halloween collections have become a symbol of con- cern and an expression of tangible aid." Some Refuse To Give Another great supporter of UNICEF is the Holy See. Ever since the fund started the late lamented Pope Pius XII gave an annual contribution from the Vatican. This has been con- tinued by the present Holy Father, Pope John XXIII. Indeed this is just one further piece of evidence of Vatican support for worthy projects of the United Nations. There are some people in this country, alas, who refuse to give any support to UNICEF. Indeed, they spend their time attacking it. Their reasoning is not only that it is an agency of the "godless' United Nations," but, more important, UNICEF helps children in Communist lan~ls. This, according to its critics, means that UNICEF is aiding and abetting the Communist conspiracy and as such cannot be properly sup- ported by true, patriotic Americans. Jrrelevant Question Frankly, this is a lot of balderdash. I am quite willing for my small contribution to UNICEF to go to help some needy Child in a Communist country. In the same way as I would not object to it going to a needy child in the neutral countries or the countries of our Allies. If we are going to ask a starv- ing youngster what are his politics before we will feed him, we have come to a sorry state in our evaluation of Christian charity. You can be sure that Pope John did not ask whether the Vatican's contribution was going to help a needy child in Poland, Yugoslavia, Albania or Greece or Ghana or India. The humanitarian conscience of the Holy See is unfettered by such irrelevancies. " Pretty Stupid Outlook One more thought in this regard. The mere fact that we have such a diversion of viewpoints in the United Nations makes it impossible to guarantee that all the UNICEF money collected here will be used only for the children of those countries friendly to us. No-child is responsible for the politics of his parents, or even the pOssible despotic rule of the leaders of his country Henec, we should look upon the UNICEF collection at Halloween as something which is above the coId war; above the so-called debate between the liberals and conservatives; above the~ idea that the ultra- patriots must oppose UNICEF because some of its money goes to Communist countries. This writer has traveled in many parts of the ,~orld. He, has seen poverty and despair, which one cannot find even in the worst slums of this country. He has seen youngsters rummaging through the garbage cans of Hong Kong, Bombay, Accra, Cairo and many other foreign cities. I haven't the heart to look at the face of a child suffering from gross mal- nutrition and not share my bread with him. Maybe*I'm too soft hearted: Maybe I should demand to know his political affiliation Before I give him my pittance maybe I should ask him whether he knows anything about the Constitution of the United States. Perhaps I should give him a test in the meaning of Democracy; and if he passes it with flying colors, maybe I should double my contribution. How stupid can you get? ol O ine Dear Editor: Having read Father William Smith's column eai~h week for sev- er-el months, I think I am now able to make a few observations concerning this column Several editorials written by Father Smith have been aggravat- ing to me personally--notably his views on socialized medicine, John L. Lewis, management's right to manage, corporate owner- ship and several others. However this week (Oct. 20 issue), Father Smith showed himself for what ha is and that is worthy of comment.' His references ,to the conserva- tive Catholic who writes letters of opposition to his viewpoint were almost incredulous. Specifically, Father Smith states that these Catholics are danger- ous to Catholicism--a "fungus in an unweeded field", as a group they are "illiterati", emotional- ists and finally "parrots" for im- pressions which they obtain from others. May I submit that no member of the Mystical Body of Christ and certain~ not a representative of God on earth has the right to be grossly insulting and uncharitable to a large segment, or even an in- dividual who also has member- ship in the Mystical Body of Christ. I should think that some consid- eration be given to eliminating his column from the Observer--not oa the basis of his social and politi- cal views which he is entitled to, but on the basis of his unfair methods and his negativism versus constructive criticism. Please do not interpret my views concerning Father Smith as indicative of my attitude to other articles in the OBSERVER. Quite to the contrary, I find them in- formative and instructive. Respectfully, (name withheld) Rockford, Ill. COMMENT: This letter wag written by a personal friend Of the editor and perhaps was. not intended for publication. It con- tains candid views and an nnmis. takable displeasure with several articles by Father Smith in his weekly column, Spotlight on So- cial Reform. We publish the letter because it gives an opportunity to examine a principle of journalism which is frequently overlooked: a columnist whose name appears in a by.line is expressing his per- sonal views whose acceptance or rejection should be based on the intrinsic vah~e of the arguments presented therein. In last week's column, Father Smith did descend to a bit of name calling. But his opening para- graphs reflected the barrage of the same to which he is exposed. The "fungus" and "illiterati" references were "low blows." But what writer always bats a thou- sand? We re-state: the sensible ap- proach to newspaper columnists is a rational analysis of what they have to say. Sometimes it hits home and helps us form our own opinions. At other times, it forces us to examine more deeply our own opposing convictions and thus renders, at least indirectly, a service to us. Dear Editor: Congraculations on the new for- mat of the OBSERVER. Column NINE is very interesting. We also enjoy the weekly feature, "Meet the Clergy. The picture-story, A Day in the Life of an Air Force Chaplain was much- appreciated since our son is in the Air Force. There was interesting news on the DCCW convention in Freeport. Speaking of that, when is the dio- cese going to affiliate with the National Council of Catholic Men? Yours sincerely, Freeport, Ill. COMMENT: Thanks for the cheerful comments from a reader who apparently covers each week's issue with avid interest in things Catholic. ROME- CHURCH IN CUBA "Before coming to power the authorities (Castro regime} pre- tended to desire friendship and support of Catholics and feigned rejection of the communists t~/ win popular support. Once they gained power, everything changed. "An accord with the Church is possible only on the condition that the Church renounce completely its teaching activities and it.~ apostolic mission, and on condi- tion that it remain subservient to the state and limit itself to per- forming liturgical ceremonies. I believe that this is impossible." The Most Rev. Eduardo Bo- za Masvidal, exiled auxiliary bishop of Havana, in an NCWC interview in Rome. The acts of contemplation are four: to seek after God, to find Him, to feel His sacred touch in the soul, and to be united with Him and to enjoy Him. Archb. Ullathorne