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September 15, 1961     The Observer
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September 15, 1961
 

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By FATHER JOHN RYAN WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE NEWMAN CLUBS? The Newman club is a recognized unit of the Catholic apostolate in non-Catholic and public colleges. It takes its name and inspiration from the great educator and convert of the last century, Cardinal Newman. Its pur- pose is to assist young Catholic students in secular schools to apply Christian thought and principles to their every- day life. Their spiritual needs are cared for by duly ap- pointed chaplains. The first club was formed by five Catholic students in the University of Pennsylvania in 1893. Twenty years later, eleven clubs h a d formed a federation in New York, Phila- delphia and Princeton. They invited other clubs to affiliate with them. A National Federation was formed in 1938 which soon became a member of the National Catho- lic Youth council. There are now about 100,000 members of the 350 plus Newman clubs affiliated with the National Federa- tion. In addition, there are about 200 clubs not affiliated but listed in the headquar- ters office. The national organization is governed by a national convention which meets annually. The National Federation represents the interests of Cath- olic students in secular institutions of learning. It fosters a national program to bring Christian principles to bear on the general educational and student life of the nation. The Newman federation is affiliated with the Pax Romana, which is an international organization of Catholic stu- dents. Its headquarters are located at 1312 Massachusetts Ave N.W Washington 5, D.C. -4- ~ WHEN A PRIEST OFFERS TWO MASSES IN ONE DAY DOES HE RECEIVE HOLY COMMUNION TWICE? Yes. It is required for the completion of the Sacrifice of the Mass that the Sacred Species be received. The laws governing the reception of Holy Communion for the laity (or for the priest who is not offering the Sacrifice of the Mass, say for instance on Holy Thursday) state that Com- munion may be received only once in a day. The laws governing the offering of the Holy Sacrifice restrict a priest to one Mass a day with exceptions: on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation when additional Masses must be offered for the faithful to fulfill their obligation, a priest may say two Masses; with special permission of the Bishop of the diocese, even three Masses; then on two days a year, Christmas and the commemoration of All Souls, each priest may, whether necessary for the laity or not, offer three Masses. Each time the Holy Sacrifice is offered, it is required that the priest receive Holy Communion. This is an obli- gation for the valid completion of the Sacrifice. Therefore, a priest receives Holy Communion as often in one day as he offers Mass. -k ~t #e STATE LAWS PROVIDE THAT A WOMAN WHOSE HUSBAND HAS BEEN CONFINED TO A MENTAL IN- : STITUTION FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS, MAY MARRY :AGAIN. DOES THE CATHOLIC CHURCH MAKE ANY r SUCH PROVISION? No. The Church recognizes the great hardship placed . on one whose spouse is taken away for such a reason as : mental illness, but cannot under any circumstances grant permission for remarriage for that reason. While both : parties of a validly contracted and consummated marriage continue to live, their marriage bond is indissoluble. Even in the most pitiable cases, the marriage bond continues until death. IS THE ANNUNCIATION AN ARTICLE OF FAITH, AS I ARE THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION AND THE ASo i SUMPTION? I The historical fact of the Annunciation is clearly re- ]lated in the Gospel of St. Luke. There can be no question regarding its objective truth. Nor can there be any queS- tion regarding the doctrinal implications of the message of the Angel Gabriel to Mary. The doctrine of the divine 'maternity of our Blessed Lady is clearly indicated in the ' scriptural text, and is the basis of the teaching of the Church which has been authoritatively proposed and q which is binding on all the faithful. It may be said, therefore, that the truth of the fact of ~the Annunciation is implicit in the teaching of the Church n that Mary is the Mother of God. The Church has not, how- lever, defined the Annunciation in explicit terms as an ar- i ticle of faith. It would be rash for a Catholic to deny this as a historical fact, but it would be impossible to say that tone who would do so would be guilty of formal heresy. i HOW CAN A REVELATION BE CALLED PRIVATE ; WHEN IT TAKES PLACE AS PUBLICLY AS THAT AT : FATIMA? It is important to understand the meaning of public revelation to avoid confusion. Public revelation is that *which was made by Christ through His Apostles to the ( . ientzre Church for the behef and acceptance ,of all. It iended with the death of the last Apostle. All revelations ~made to private persons since that time are called pri- ~vate revelations. Some of them have received great pub- 'licity but are still called private because their purpose iis different from that of the universal revelations of Christ. I Thus it is not the amount of publicity, but rather the .purpose of the revelation and its conection with Christ ~that gives it its name. Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: 'Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is inot necessary to sign your name unless you wish" a per- isonal reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not tto use unsigned questions. If any Catholics are wondering about just what special Jpreparation they should be making now so that they will always be spiritually fit to cope with such a catastrophe as an atomic attack they should recall the perfect answer given by Bishop Sheen when he was asked as to what we should do about the atomic bomb. He answere~ very calmly, "Keep in a state of grace." This is our best spir- itual defense and aid against any kind of attack, and the only fear any of us should ever have is the fear of losing this gift of sanctifying grace. --Catholic Mirror ,| "#~SS ItIP Vol. XVI, No. 37 Sept. 15, 1961 The calling of a national strike affecting approxi- mately one quarter million American workers with a daily earning (and spending) capacity of over 8 million dollars certainly has a tremendous effect on the nation's economy. Presumably such a strike should occur only if very serious grievances of the workers had not been alleviated by arbi- tration. An editorial in a Catholic newspaper is the ex- pression of an opinion--not necessarily the state- ment or judgment of the Church. Concerning the strike of the United Auto Workers against Gen- eral Motors, we are of the opinion that it is un- fortunate in the extreme and that it will be a "black eye" to the cause of labor for many gen- erations. The strike was called after negotiations on wage increases were definitely settled. The strike was called on the basis of "local grievances ---a list including more than four thousand com- plaints of minor and trivial nature ranging from length of time for coffee-breaks to the granting of automatic time off for deer hunting. Once upon a time Pope Leo XIII wrote this: "When workpeople h a v e recourse to strike, it is frequently because the hours of labour are too long, or the work too hard, or because they con- sider their wages insufficient." In the moral teachings of the Church on social justice the following conditions are given for justi- fying a strike: 1: a just cause 2. the fruitlessness of conciliation and arbitra- tion 3: a reasonable proportion between the injuries inflicted and the goods to be secured. 4: a solid hope of success to be achieved. A situation of conflict between management and labor divides people into two campswusually on the basis of preconceived notions highly tinged with emotion. With some the "big boss" is always wrong and should be cut down to size whenever the opportunity presents itself. With others, the II i THE MOST REVEREND LOP, AS T. LANE: : : . Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR L O'NEILL .Managing Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women'l Page Editor BEULAH O'MEARA - Buline~l ROBERT J. STARR ~ Advertlsino ~NN BERTOLASI ~ Circuloficm The Observet~ printed weekly at 413 Pleasant Street B(iloit, Wil- =nsin is the official newspaper of the Catholic Diocese if Rockford. ~econd class postage palo at Belo t Wisconsin. Subscriptions $4.00 per yea0 prepaid in the Unltea Steres ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE )BSERVER i260 NORTH CHURCH STREE1 ROCKFORD. ILLINOIS. PQSTJ~I~STER: Please send form 3579 te the OBSERVER, 1260 Noltll C.Jm~Jb Street, aockfard, Ullimk, labor force is committed to get as much as it can and is therefore predisposed to wrecking the na- tion's economy. Each strike situation must be judged objectively on its own merits. It seems to us that the present UAW walkout is a maneuver for power. The work- ers themselves are not seeking further gains in wages. It looks as though the strike was premedi- tated before negotiations, and called as a demon- stration of power, no doubt with the objective of impressing other big companies in the automotive manufacturing field. It is indeed a far cry from the day when strikes, justified on the basis of an honest effort to get a meagre living wage, had the moral justification to elicit the support and en- thusiasm of thinking people. In these days of international stressl it is vitally important that our economic productivity operate to full capacity and that less-developed nations know that our system is workable. A nationwide strike for the purpose of bigger coffee breaks is an embarrassing farce. WASHINGTON LETTER i I By J. J. Gilbert WASHINGTON--(NC)--One of the nation's top military men here never fails to emphasize t h e need of strong spiritual qualities in the nation's defense. In speeches here and around the country this soldier has hinted at some astonishing scientific developments, spurred at least in part by military research, but he makes it plain that this country's great strength is spiritual. For example, he told a recent veterans' convention some eye-popping things about scientific developments and t h e n said: "Too many PeOPle today think of weapons sys- tems only in terms of munitions and material-- and fail to recognize one historical fact -- that America's mightiest weapons have been moral in I III I I I II I II I I I I I II I I ~ I II[IS I I I concept and moral in action. T o d a y, as in the past, America possesses mighty moral resources that are not available to the enemy. "One is our Christian foundation and dedication to individual freedom and the dignity of m a n. The difficult art of exploiting this great m o r a 1 strength deserves the most profound study and implementation. We c a n certainly improve on past performance, however." The speaker was Lt. Gen. Arthur G. Trudeau, Army Chief of Research and Development. He is a Catholic and a Knight of Malta. Gen. Trudeau speaks with authority when he talks about astonishing progress in the field of science. He sees many useful projects that were undreamed of a few years ago in prospect today, partly because of the nation's effort to prepare for its defense. Guidance and electronic systems "almost t o o fantastic to imagine" are seen in the future. Amazing compactness has been a c h i e v e d in some fields. Only 7,000 electronic parts could be enclosed in a cubic foot of space a few years ago, but today 350,000 parts are encased in the s a m e area. And this is said to be only the beginning. "Good wrist watch radios of the s i z e of an after-dinner mint" are forecast for the not too distant future. By the turn of the century, some say, one may carry "electronic language translation equipment" in a brief case, and by inserting the p r o p e r language component can converse with "m o s t anybody in the world" using a 1,000-w or d vo- cabulary. Great developments in medicine, chemistry and power sources are also predicted. Gen. Trudeau says America stands today in a world "torn by three revolutionary phenomena occurring simultaneously." One of these is "the rising tide of expectations in the underdeveloped areas of the world." Another is the tremendous explosion in science and technology. But "fore- most" of the three is "the godless ideology of com- munism," he asserts. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM [ll~lJUJ II I I [ I eli 6 I I L I I I I I . II I I I I I I I II I[ I . III *CANT SMELL A THING WITH THESE GLAssES" REAPINGS AT RANDOM I I I ews!- OUSe. ,o.un in The Teamsters International claims a membership of 1,700,- 000. United States labor depart- ment figures read 1,500,000. Con- trasted with four small local un- ions numbering 4,000 members in all, the exact total member- ship is immaterial. The International is a cloud- burst; four locals a rain-drop. That is the comparative picture of the battle in Cincinnati be- tween J i m m y Hoffa's a r m y and a brave lit- tle b a n d of Teamster rebels who voted to se- cede from the International. The action of t h e Cincinnati locals is the f i r s t effective and meaningful revolt that has developed since Jimmy Hoffa succeeded the dis- credited Dave Beck to the presi- dency of the Teamster empire, Invincible -- But Nothing that has happened to date revealed the real nature of the Hoffa regime as did the re- action of Teamster officialdom to this small, local event. What harm could possibly come to the mighty, money-laden Teamsters International by the withdrawal of 4,000 from the 1,500,000 mem- bership? Reams of publicity have re- minded the public and the rank- and-file of the Teamsters that the International is invincible. The Miami convention "canon. ized" the leadership. The dele- gates absolved each and every official of any and every indict- ment, accusation or allegation that had ever been made against any one of them. The solidarity of Teamster ranks was proclaimed "unbreakable." They feared no man, movement or opposing power on earth. AFL-CIO, hostile managements, restrictive laws, congressional committees, the critical press, the U.S. attorney general, even the President himself, all got the same treatment -- Teamster contempt. And then came the "deluge !" Mouse Challenges Lion Four small, insignificant local unions, numbering 4,000 mem- 'bars in all, like a baby mouse FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. squeaking a defiance at a roar- ing lion, declared their indepen- dence of the parent organiza- tion. The reaction at Teamster headquarters in Washington was electric in its sharpness. Con- sternation, dismay, anger rose like a cloud from an atom bomb blast. A small army of Teamster shock troops were rushed from various parts of the country to the Cincinnati area. Officials, business agents, organizers ar- rived in droves. They practically filled one hotel and fanned out through the city to other places of residence. The legal appar- atus went into action like fire- fighting units resPonding to a agents would have us believe. As a matter of fact there is a note and a tone of "the gentleman doth protest too much" running all through their propaganda pieces. Double Danger It is beginning to look as though the added power and rigid controls approved by the M i a m i convention delegates were designed to meet "revolts from within" as well as "attacks from our enemies from with- out." But there is nothing very strange about that. Has there ever been a dictatorship which has not been faced with this dou- ble danger? Whenever I-read of the bene- four-alarm emergency. It was fits bestowed upon reported that $20,000 worth of time and space on TV and radio were contracted for in one week. Elements of Power Hoffa summed up Teamster strategy when he said: 1. "We will spend an unlimit- ed amount of money to end this thing. 2. "We are going to be in the court to fight them. 3. "We will talk to these mem- bers on the street, in their homes." Money that talks in different languages. Long drawn-out court actions which can drain the fi- nancially weaker opponent of its resources. "Persuasion,' a word which has more than one mean- ing when applied to an inter- union battle. Added together these three elements tell much of the story of Jimmy Hoffa's success and Teamster domina- tion. Not So Confident And all this to prevent four small locals, numbering 4,000 members, from exercising their legal and democratic right to be governed by officials of their own choosing. Harold Gibbons, Hoffa's first lieutenant, gave the real and overriding reason for the tre- mendous mobilizing of forces against the 4,000, "It's not so much the 4,000 drivers here which worry us," said Gibbons. "It's the other 1,b00,000." Evidently Teamster official- dom is not as confident of the loyalty and the support of the rank-and-file as their publicity Teamster members by the incumbent offi- cers of the international (and the point is repeated ad nause- am) it brings to mind a story I heard some years ago. The an- ecdote ran this way: An agitator on a soap box in Union square, New York city, is exhorting his audience --- Comes The Revolution "Look at the way things are," he shouted. "The wealthy they got everything; the walkers, we got nawthin'. "The wealthy they go to Palm Beach. The walkers stay home and walk. "The wealthy they got the Ca- dalacks; the walkers, we walk. "The wealthy they get the stromberries and crim; the walkers we get the prunes -- "COME THE REVOLUTION-- we get the stromberries and crim; the wealthy they get the prunes." Take It And Like It A cynic in the audience growl- ed: "I don't like strawberries and cream." "Come the revolution ~ you get stromberries and crim--and you like it." It was ever thus even to this day and the Teamsters Interna- tional simply follows an old-fash- ioned pattern. Now and again, however, the "revolution" takes an unexpected turn. The Cincin- nati declaration of independence may be the lighted cigaret butt that will set off a conflagaration ---unless a heavy heel grinds it into the dirt. CCOU By GERARD E. SHERRY The cold war gets hot, with a shooting war just around the corner. It would be foolish for us to look at the cur- rent international situation in any other way. What is more--despite the moral and legal rights of the Western powers over Berlin, we must also face the reality that there is little hope of peaceful settlement. Somber realities of the situation force the conclusion that the position of the Free World has been undermined by the sadistically clever planning of the Communist hierarchy. We have been out- smarted time and time again, with no end in sight. When the modern wall of oppression and subjugation was recently erected to divide West Berlin from its Eastern compatriots, there was much jubilation from people on our side. They claimed the West had won a moral victory. They said it exposed 'the bankruptcy of the Communist way of life; they said it would be a lesson for the rest Of the world. Hollow "Victories" Alas, we are not dealing with people who worry about moral or legal positions. We are not dealing with people who worry about world opinion. We are dealing with ruth- less men whose whole aim is total victory--and soon--for atheistic materialism. One has only to consider the contempt of Nik/ta Khrush- rawtng or. chev for the 25 leading neutral nations who met recently in Belgrade. On the eve of their deliberations he an- nounced the resumption of nuclear tests in the atmos- phere. To some on our side this sounded like another "victory" for the West. It was thought it would turn the neutrals against the Kremlin. But it didn't, and for these reasons: Peace at Any Price The first is that half Of the so-called neutral, nonaligned nations of the world are not neutral; and the only nonalign- ment they practice is in relation to the West; the other half of the neutralist countries are stricken by the terror propaganda emanating from Moscow. To them it is peace at any price; itis better to be Red than dead. The free world, therefore, can find little comfort in the present situation. If the international crisis is taken up in the United Nations we could probably not get sufficient votes to back our position. And here again it is not a ques- tion of whether we are right or wrong, but simply the gamble taken by the majority of nations to the effect that Russian militarism is too powerful to stop. Everyone, therefore, wants to be on the winning side. One Thing Certain Naturally, all is not black and white. The free world has tremendous military capabilities. It has sound economic advantages; it has the added spiritual force of its peoples, What, therefore, is left for us to do? One thing is certain--there can be no talk of surrender to the force of evil. There can be negotiation. But how much can we trust the Communists to keep their pledge? Their record so far consists of a string of broken treaties and the outlook is dim for them to keep their word. The stab in the back can come at any moment. Another Pearl Harbor is around the corner. Mr. Khrushchev hopes to conquer us not by weapons, but by propaganda. He wants us to lose confidence in ourselves. He wants us to fatalistically accept his inter- pretation of the end result of the cold war. Are We Ready? Tragically, we are doing little to counter-act Communist propaganda. Oh, it is true we condemn the Communists; but more than condemnation is needed. We must prepare ourselves for the evil day. For instance, is our concern only for the consolidation of our material way of life? Are we afraid of the Communists only because they will take our split levels, our two cars, our freezers and our right to have a good time? Or do we see something far more Serious; something which threatens the very spiritual ideals for which we all live and which will be upheld when we die? Do we believe in Christ's words: "What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world and suffers the lo~s of his own soul? Or what exchange shall a man give for his soul? It is important that we understand this fully. The inter. national crisis that we face is not merely political, eco- nomic or social. It is basically a spiritual one. Therefore, we must all prepare ourselves spiritually for the day that we will have to stand up and be counted not only as Americans, but as Christians. Are we ready? t .