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August 25, 1961     The Observer
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on By FATHER JOHN RYAN HAS A PRIEST THE CHOICE OF THE KIND OF WINE HE USES AT MASS OR IS THAT REGULATED BY LAW? The only choice the priest has is among the various types of grape wine. Wine used in Mass must be pure grape fermentation. According to taste, the choice is between red grape wine or white; between sweet or dry. HAS THE CHURCH DECLARED INFALLIBLY THAT PRAYERS AND MASSES WILL NOT BENEFIT THE SOULS IN HELL? The teaching of the Church on hell, clearly implies that no relief from the punishments of this state is possible, and that the prayers of the faithful cannot help those who have been eternally lost. IS IT APPROPRIATE FOR CATHOLICS TO KNEEL IN PRIVATE PRAYER AT THE BIER OF A DECEASED NON-CATH- OLIC? MAY A GROUP OF CATHOLICS PUBLICLY RECITE THE ROSARY TO- GETHER AT THE BIER OF A N O N- CATHOLLIC? If a kneeling bench were placed at the bier of the non-Catholic, it would not be wrong for a Catholic to kneel upon it to pray for the soul of the deceased. If there were no kneeling bench, prevailing custom should be respected. A Catholic should not kneel in prayer if this would be objectionable to the sur- vivors of the deceased, or if his attitude would be ridi- culed or subject to unfavorable criticism. Otherwise there would be no objection to either the act of kneeling or the private prayer of which it would be the outward ex- pression. As a general rule it would be inadvisable for a group of Catholics to recite the Rosary publicly at the bier of a non-Catholic. While it is true that this would be merely private prayer, nevertheless it is conducted in a public way and in a form which is distinctively Catholic. There might be exceptions to the rule, but no exception should be made without the knowledge and full approval of the parish priest in the locality in which the problem arises. IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO HAVE A MASS SAID FOR A NON-CATHOLIC WHO HAS DIED? In this matter the law of the Church respecting excom- municated persons finds application since non-Catholics are considered to fall under this law. By Canon 2262 such persons are deprived of.the right to share in the indulgences, suffrages and public prayers of the Church. However, the law adds that the faithful are not forbidden to pray privately for them. And priests are permitted to apply Mass to them if done privately and with no scandal present. Therefore, in direct answer to the question, a Mass may be requested for a deceased non-Catholic and it may be ~aid. However, there may be no publicity to this. Thus this Mass should not be announced from the altar; nor should the circumstances make evident for whom it is offered, as might happen on an anniversary. WOULD TIlE PRACTICE OF PRESENTING A MASS CARD TO THE FAMILY BE FORBIDDEN PUBLICITY? I don't think so as long as the Mass is not announced publicly. The Mass card is a private gift and a private announcement for the immediate family. In requesting these Masses it would be well to inform the priest that the Mass is for a deceased non-Catholic that it may be omitted from the announcement of Masses. TO WHAT EXTENT IS A 21 YEAR OLD OBLIGED TO OBEY HIS OR HER PARENTS IF HE STILL LIVES WITH THEM? Adult children, as long as they continue to live at home, must obey their parents in all things necessary for domes- tic peace and order, i.e keeping reasonable hours, choice of associates and places of diversion, family custom, etc. It is presumed, of course, that the commands of the parents are reasonable and made for the welfare of the children. In educational matters, choice of vocation, ordi- nary income, etc adult children are not necessarily bound to the wishes of their parents. If, however, the child's choice of action in making any of these decisions runs counter to the practice of religion or conflicts with law, the parents should intervene and are to be obeyed. Besides obedience, children of any age, whether living at home or not, are bound to internal and external rever- ence, children find obedience to their parents no problem. WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE SACRAMENT OF EX- TREME UNCTION? The origin of the seven Sacraments is in Christ who in- stituted them. Each Sacrament has these distinguishing characteristics: they were all instituted by Christ, seven in number; they all, validly administered, give grace, both sanctifying grace and a sacramental grace, peculiar to each sacrament. If you meant when did Christ institute this Sacrament, we do not know. The Gospel account does not mention the time or the occasion on which Our Lord told the Apostles to attend those in danger of death with the administration of this Sacrament. We're sure, how- ever, of its institution, because one of the Apostles, St. James, speaks of it in his Epistle: "Is anyone among you sick? Let him bring in the priests of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up, and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him. Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It iS not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a per- sonal reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. i For faith is the beginning and the end is love, and God is the two of them brought into unity. After these comes whatever else makes up a Christian gentleman. --St. Ignatius oI Antioch bJ,deMIP Vol. XXVI, No. 34 August 25, 1961 i THE MOST REVEREND LORAS T. LANE - Publlsher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL .M onoging Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Wch'~ln,Page Edit~ ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Busineu RGOERT J. STARR Advertisino ANN BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer, Iorinted weekly at 413 Pleasant Street Beloit, Wis. cousin, Is the official newspaper of the Catholic Diocese of Rockford. Second class Doctage paid ~t eloit, Wisconsin. Subscriptions $4.00 pet year prepaid In the Unltod Stetee El 'ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER, 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREET ROCKFORD. ILLINOIS. i~TMASTER; Please iend form 3S79 to the OBSERYER, 1260 Neltk C, hu~ Slreet~ neekferd, UUnob. - Learn Pope John's encyclical, Mater et Magistra, has elicited more immediate comment in both t h e daily and the Catholic press than any other letter of recent times. This impact is proof that the let- ter hit a vital spot in 20th century thought a n d manners. One comment in National Review by William Buckley, a Catholic, to the extent that the letter was a "venture in trivialities" evoked not a little ire from many Catholic commentators. We won- der whether or not Mr. Buckley's attitude is not shared by many Catholics who have at least a sub- conscious attitude that teachings of the Church may be by-passed if they do not conveniently fit in with their own pre-conceived ideas? The attitude expressed in the National Review editorial reflects a basic misunderstanding of the meaning of encyclicals a n d their i m p o r t on Catholic thought. Pope Plus XII clearly stated in his letter "Humani Generis" that there is a bind- ing force to encyclicals: "Nor must it be thought that what is expounded in encyclical letters does not of itself demand con- sent, since in writing such letters the Popes do not exercise the supreme power of their teaching authority. For these matters are taught with the ordinary teaching authority . . . and generally what is expounded and inculcated in encyclical letters already for o t h e r reasons appertains to Catholic doctrine. But if t h e Supreme Pontiff in their official documents purposely pass judg- ment on a matter up to that rime'under dispute, it is obvious that the matter according to the mind and will of the same Pontiffs, cannot any longer be considered a question open to discussion among theologians." There is a binding force to teachings found in encyclicals. This comes from what is technically d called the ordinary teaching authority. Catholics are most imprudent and flirting with disaster if they choose not to agree with or to follow the di- rectives found in encyclicals. It is incumbent on us as Catholics to know the content of the encyclicals. This comes only by thorough study and surely not from a c u r s o r y reading. There are many adult study clubs look- ing for material for the forthcoming sessions. We can think of no more opportune subject than the saving truths to be found in Mater et Magistra. Instead of wanting to be pick-and-chose mem- bers of the Church, we should strive to be read- and-learn Catholics. The Universal Church apparently places great hope in the Church of the United States. This was evidenced during the recent National Con- gress of Religious at Notre Dame by the remarks of Monsignor Augostino Casseroli, a representa- tive of the Vatican Pontifical Commission for La- tin America. The Monsignor from the Vatican said that the ideal situation for the solution of the religious problems of Latin America would be for each religious order here to contribute one-tenth of its present members in the next ten years for service in Latin America. This would mean that more than 20,000 American priests, Brothers and Sis- ters would be sent to Latin American missions in the next decade. With the growth of the Church in America there has developed a good spirit of support of the missions both by material aid and manpower. But we have never reached the capacity of ten- percent of the total religious vocations assigned to the missions. Do we have the will to give to this extent? To be sure the 10% statement represented the ideal situation and was in no way a request or a command. Nevertheless it succeeds in emphasiz- ing the tremendous need. About one-third of the entire Catholic popula- tion of the world lives in Latin America. Due main- ly to economic and social injustices perpetrated over three centuries, the Church has not been able to supply a sufficient number of native vocations. This is the prime cause of the Church's problem south of our borders. In our own parishes and schools we are aware of an insufficient number of vocations. Yet our situation almost represents an extravagance by comparison with our neighbor's problem. If more and more religious orders heed the call of the Vatican for American priests a n d Sisters to go south, we may yet feel a greater pinch in our schools and parishes. It is only recently that we have grown to accept the idea of the lay teach- er in our schools. We had grown up on the lux- ury of a copious supply of religiou s teachers. That situation is going to alter whether we like it or not. The day is not far off when American Catholics will be called upon* to make sacrifices never dreamed of in the opulence of their self-sufficien- cy. But we face a difficult dilemma--horde ali our assets (manpower and material wealth) and let Latin America be the next ripe plum to fall into the Communist vortex or prepare to send all the aid possible (manpower and material) with the knowledge that this is going to mean drastic changes in the myopic view of life which some- hGw has a grip on our religious and political think- ing. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REI:ORM eB IDLE HANDS There is so much ado made in some circles about the slogan, "This is a Republic, not a De- mocracy," that one might get the impression that a brand new discovery has been m a d e or something Mnister is taking place in American life. Right - wing commentators in the daily press put the assertion i n t o articles time and again. ~i~i~ii~i;~i~i!i~i~::!~,~!i~i~i~!i~-~~:~:.~;~ Comments on it ~iili in conservative publications are cam man- place. You hear it voiced in p a n e l discus- sions. The latest manifestation is in the form of a sticker on en- velopes in the mail, reading "this is a Republic -- not a de- mocracy ~ let's keep it that way." I find it difficult to compre- hend what all the shouting is about. It is crystal clear that our form of government is that of a representative Republic which iticludes a strong federal unify- ing power. Difficult to Comprehend That issue was fought out 150 years ago when the delegates to the convention called for the pur- pose of amending the Articles of Confederation met in PhiLadel- phia and came out of their con- sultations with a written Consti- tution which was to supplant the original Articles of Confedera- tion. If the federal agencies of our government have been usurping the powers, of the individual states contrary to the provisions of the Constitution, as Senator Barry Goldwater claims, for in- stance in regard to education, that is a public issue which should be loudly debated in the public arena. But what it has to do with turning this nation into a "Democracy" rather than a Republic is difficult for me to comprehend. Logic of Assumption How increased Federal power and control increases the danger of our becoming a "Democracy" strains the meaning of words as U FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. far as I can see. Yet, this seems to be a popular argument by many who advocate greater ex- ercise of autonomy on the part of the individual states and a lessening of jurisdiction by our elected officials in Washington. The only basis for the hulla- baloo being raised under the banner of "This is a Republic, not a Democracy," seems to rest on an insinuation. The logic of the insidious assumption seems to follow this trail: Originally jn Communist theory the Marxists claimed that they would 'set up a dictatorship of the proletariat. Capitalism would be destroyed and then through the instrumen-- tality of some magic wand "the state would wither away." The end result would be a paradise on earth with a classless society which could be characterized as a pure democracy. Mirage Obsolete ~ By some quirk of reasoning, the shotiters of "This is a Re- public and not a Democracy," apparently identify the growing trend toward more federal pow- er as a step toward, or some in- termediate stage on the way, to this theoretical C o m m u n i s t dreamland. If that is what is disturbing their minds and peace of soul, someone ought to tell them that this Communist mirage has long been discarded as obsolete even by the dreamiest of Communist dreamers. Everyday Terms When Americans use the term "democracy," or "the democra- tic way of life" or "democratic processes," they are certainly not trying to repudiate the fact that the United States of Amer- ica is still a Republic. Such terms are used every day by normal Americans in every walk of life. When we talk of civil rights and due process of law normal citizens are. simply alluding to one phase of a contrast which pits American tradition against dictatorial methods. When our citizens go to the polls and cast their ballots, they are exercising a democratic function by choos- ing their public officials to repre- sent them as agents in adminis- tering the affairs of our Repub- lic. Social Equality When they refer to the fact that there is no such thing as a caste system in America, they use the word democracy as a synonym for the absence of snobbery in social standings. When a workman drives along in his compact car and perhaps remarks to his wife and kids, "This is democracy!" he is not thinking of undermining the con- stitutional basis of our form of government. He is merely say- ing that his car may not be as big or shiny as that of his boss, but the very possession of a car at all places him on a plane of social equality with the most affluent segments of our society. Prompted by c u r i o s i t y, I sought a little light on this ques- tion from Webster's New Colle- giate Dictionary. Even a scholar would find it difficult to find con- tradiction or conflict in the de- finition of the two words, Repub- lic and Democracy. Here is the way Webster spells out the meaning of the two terms: Two Definitions "Republic --- a State in which the sovereign power resides in a certain body of the people (the electorate) and is exercised by representatives elected by, and responsible to them." "Democracy--Government by the people; government in which the supreme power is retained by the people and exercised either directly (absolute or pure democracy) or indirectly (rep- resentative democracy) through a system of representation." If this holy crusade to imprint indelibly upon the minds of Americans that this is a Repub- lic and not a Democracy is meant as an effective weapon of anti-Communism, the thought is just too absurd for reasonable comment. The fact that the Communists abuse the term "democracy" does not destroy the validity of the word. Nor is it a reason for us to be ashamed of our own American way of life. You don't have to denounce the popular usage of the term democracy to be a genuine and patriotic American. REAPINGS AT RANDOM USSIQn ling By GERARD E. SHERRY The current crisis between Communism and the Free World has led many people to undue comparisons between the two systems. Some of us are mesmerized by Soviet successes in science and we immediately look for a scape- goat It has been said that one of the reasons why the Soviets are ahead of us in space is that our educational system is not as good as theirs. Some~ people go so far as to say that Russian schools cover more subjects than ours do; and that, in general, they take school life much more seriously than do our students. This is the type of talk which leads some of us to have an inferior complex to every- thing the Russians do. Yet, anyone who has been to the Soviet Union. knows a lot of false information and exaggeration ex- ists ir~ relation to comparisons of life un- der Communism and life in a free society, Dispels Many Fullness Take education in the Soviet Union. A rather excellent article on the subject ap- peared in the Saturday Review of August 19. Written by Zeno B. Katterle, Dean of the School of Education, Washington State university, it dispels many of the myths and fallacies in relation to Soviet schooling. One prime example given by Dean Katterle is in rela- tion to the teaching of foreign languages. Many American educators say that more foreign languages are taught in Russia than here. Mr. Katterle makes a very potent ob- servation. In the 15 Republics of the Soviet Union there are 65 languages spoken and hundreds of dialects. In the non Russian Republics, local language is the basic for learning. However, the Soviet leaders are attempting to nationalize the Russian language in all the Republics. Hence, Russian accounts for most of the "foreign languge" instruction in Soviet secondary schools. Scienc~ and English Mr. Katterle sa,Y~ that if the Russian language was re- .:-.'.:::~ ::::: ::~::: "::i:i ":i jec an moved from the curriculum it would mean removing 50 to 60 per cent of the foreign language instruction in the whole of the Soviet Union. The Saturday Review writer also points up a similar fallacy of comparison in relation to the amount of science taught. In Soviet schools physics occupies only [wo days in a week. However, Soviet sec- ondary students on an average get more hours of in- struction in mathematics and science than ours do. But on a high school leyel it appears our students get as much instruction in these subjects as do their counterparts in the Soviet Union. Mr. Katterle also mentions the teaching of English in Soviet schools He quotes the candid comment of the di- rector of a Leningrad school who said that many students after taking it for five years could not speak English. This was denied by the Soviet Intourist guide who accompanied the American educator. But in an actual test Mr. Katter- le reports that when he asked Russian students simple questions in English he found only one out of five could answer. Failure--Loss of Prestige The Saturday Review writer also dispels many other misconceptions we might have as to the supremacy 'of the Soviet educational system. He said reports that very few Soviet students fail in their exams give a false im- pression. One school in Leningrad, he noted, failed about 2 per cent, but the students are given a second chance in the summer when there are no failures. It seems as if Soviet teachers are held responsible for failing students. Any one of them who is forced to fail a student is not considered a good teacher. It also damages the prestige of the director of the school. What is more, most of these Soviet school examinations are actually dis- cussed in class--questions and answers before the exam- inations are taken. One can understand the few failures in this type of system. Let Not Fear Be Guide Dean Katterle concludes with the reminder" "We cannot Boles be guided by the fears and uncertainty generated by myths. It is time for sober thinking about our educational system. In our concern with the quality of education for our society we should not be stampeded into an unthink- ing imitation of the Soviet Union." Another view of Soviet education comes from a story in the London Sunday Telegraph. It relates how a young Nigerian law student studying in London was inveigled by Soviet embassy officials to transfer his study to the Friendship university in Moscow. Revolts at Cruel Methods The Nigerian imagined he was going to study internation- al law but soon found himself being trained for political subversion in Africa. He is reported to have revolted when he discovered the extremely cruel lengths he was expected to go in removing those who would stand in the way of Communist expansion in Africa. A most beautiful example is disclosed of how the Communists use Witch .~rOCtors, applying modern sciences in the form of tape .recorders and pocket radios to make skull~ talk and order the killing of white men. This is but another example of how education in Cam- munist countries is used primarily for the service of Com- munism at the expense of a~ademic learning. The ulti- mate aim of Soviet education is not the search for truth but merely the supremacy of the State over man. Puppets With Knowledge And a lesson is drawn from this. While Communism may produce scientists who can throw several tons of hard- ware into space it does not produce men to use their tal- ents for the service of mankind. It produces only pulhpets with knowledge. Significantly the end product is not free- dom but slavery. There may be a lot of things wrong with education in America but it produces the basis of our free society. We may take a little longer to do the things that the S~viet puppets do now. But what we do will be. done well-:and in a spirit of service, not in a spirit of hate.