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August 18, 1961     The Observer
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?AGE 12 THEOLOGY FOR EVERY MAN ! l ' i o, o ouol oner !h I ' " i WTh;p;~t:;ep~r ::icaluti;f~/:;It~lf~:wmi:2;~/:r:;INi~v~vi~g a o~t~c~ ~Yfl:2ces ofdsYCety a :edde :tib~n:t tth: bnidin'g du ~ndI~l~Okl has raised the question of collective guilt as distinguished fromI members to greater perfection. Every individual man possesses individual culpabiILty. To what extent is this a valid mora~I a unique and singular existence which he has received from God. concept? The following commentary was prepared at St. John's] It is the task of each individual to work for the greatest possible Seminary, Brighton, Mass. It is reprinted from The (Boston)|development of his human powers. Pilot ] IN THE FULFILLMENT OF THIS TASK, however, the indi- Q. DO MORAL GOODNESS AND MORAL EVIL PERTAIN]vidual must receive the support of the community of which he ONLY TO MAN'S SOUL, OR DO THEY INVOLVE AS WELL is a part. The word community suggests the personal indepen- THE REACTIONS OF HIS BODY? dence of the individuals who make it up. The community should A. Morality is rooted in the relation of man's free activity to not be a mass, or a mere center of organization, or a grouping God and thus pertains primarily to his spiritual soul While in- ci human beings with a common objective. True community life sisting on the primacy of the soul in man, however, we must not lose sight of the essential relation of the human soul to its body. IT WOULD BE WRONG TO REGARD man as essentially spiritual, and to think of his body as merely the prison-house of his soul. It would be wrong also to disregard the influence exerted cn man's free activity by the social forces which are generated by the interrelations of men. Although each man is a composite of body and soul, the two parts of his being are so closely united that each part loses its independence. Man is one, not two, be- ings. No act of man, in his present state, is entirely an act of his soul or entirely an act of his body. Everything that man does requires coordinated activity of both body and soul. This fundamental principle of philosophy is clearly implied in the theological doctrine of the Redemption. It is the whole man, not merely the soul, that is redeemed by God's grace. It was through His own sacred humanity, and through the sufferings el His human body, that Christ saved us and sanctified us. The cultivaiton of morality must therefore pertain to the body as well as to the soul. We must not underestimate the influence which the soul is capable of exerting on the body. By his higher spiritual activity the soul can rise above the body, rule its forces and even react against its disorders. On the other hand, the soul can never isolate itself completely from the body. The di- versity between soul and body is great, but their bond of union can never be ignored HENCE IT IS WRONG TO THINK of the passions, which per- tain principally to the bodily side of man, as nothing more than obstacles to freedom, or as occasions of sin. For the Christian philosopher the passions are valuable forces which can be har- moniously integrated into man's moral activity. Even though morality is founded in the soul, and cannot exist apart from the soul, moral activity achieves perfection only through the coor- dinated activity of body and soul. The morally good act pertains to the whole man. Though we must discipline our passions we has its roots deep in the nature of man. Within the community the individual man can become a personality in the fullest sense of the word. The persons in the community are drawn together in the bonds of love. It is characteristic of the community, as distinguished from the mere collective mass, that its members retain their intellectual attitudes and convictions. Each member is influenced by the others, without losing his own personal inde- pendence. THE COMMUNITY THUS FORMED reveals in its individual members a sense of responsil~ility for the bond of union which holds them together. At the same time, the community is not just a plurality of individuals held together by acceptance of a common obligation The community is something distinctive, with its own nature and its own peculiar pattern of influence. This is what is called the "community spirit." Every individual man is sustained and moulded in his moral life by the com- munity to which he belongs. Many of the good acts of young peo- ple, and even of adults, are products ofthe moral richness of the community, rather than of their own appreciation of moral values. It is true, then, in a very real sense, that morality has sources in men's social life. A morally upright person owes much to the communication of social values which is brought about by his environment. On the other hand, within a corrupt society, even the most strenuous personal effort must fall short of its goal of virtuous perfection. Assuming equal effort, a member of a good community will be better than one who is surrounded by un- wholesome social influences. Q. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN THE CONCEPT OF "COLLEC- TIVE GUILT" BE ADMITTED? A. Recent discussions of the guilt of nations during World War II have raised the question of the extent to which individual men share responsibility for the defects of social environment We must distinguish, in relation to this matter, between moral must not regard progress in virtue as demanding that we offer iP in *he e es of God and i " "' " r 1 gu ~ ~ y,n me juagmem o~ conscience, and resistance to me passions as mougn mey were sources oi me a -" -:~'--" - "t ~: ' " [juriulgal gUn, WhiCh may De aemrmlnea oy human trlounais. perversion ed~ a conflict between the hi her tendencies of the ] Only the individual can be guilty before God. There is basis, There is jade( g,f l however, in the nature of community life for the concept of soul and the disorders which arise in me rower tendencies o ~ h" "m -- h "' " in"i ". . . ~ ~ ~ . . . .I]urlalCal gunt, w lcn ay De s area m oy o VlClUais oy reason the many in resmvino mls contact Dam soul and Dooy must WOrK ~ "- 'r " r 1 " ar - " " " '- ~ I o~ tnel nan a and necess y memDersmp m me community. ~ yg~c~:roft~UL~l{~b~?Cylt;:l:n;sta[:ti::l:~nwt~o~:Yomn:tth~:g~l IT ISrEoVmlDENTfFsRoOciMal H/STO2iYbi~hat fltrire:~hingve~llt 7:y resmt I o c po s ty t s e a t and images. The disordered inclinations of sensuality are correct-[ ~ ~ .+ ~e~iti /unusual effort is often required within a morally corrupt so- ea not oy suppressln~ mem ar ulelr Souzc~, uuL uy lmum~ /$ -/ ~,~.e~ |ciety, for individuals to preserve themselves and their families ma~e alreeuons m WillCll uuulty iurc~s lllkty u~ autJtllliaL u. [ " " ' "i '~ "-- '~"'" " h r~ " " FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE CLOSE RELATION be-]Ir m morn contammat on. ~oclat responsmmty is a a m pm- tween Doay anu~ sum--" " wm" :" ~=au~--~ to'- a- ~m~e*~ ~p~:ri'--li*"~u= ~ w"'hich willl, point. It is not to be looked for merely in the rulers of society; it ~,o-- "-----*" *' ^ff^~+s Thus it is im'-ortant to understand the|is shared in by all men, in proportion to the influence which ave. ,~,~.~.~ = =~n'ibl ex erience~ sorrow for sin and the|they are Capable of exerting on their fellow men. Even the regu- relation Detween se s y p ~- . ~ = ~,rhile/ lation of one's personal life has implications within the com- sFlrl~ualiy mouva~ea canarD.Ion w~ilt;n arl~ in u~v mvuz. v~ / .~ 1 - . .~t . - . ~, ; ,-,o ~,~;+~ ~ +he forai-,mes of sin /munl~y oi wnmn one is a par~. nose In nlgn positions, anti mane ,~ ff ~o,~,~ ~ o = .~r :nc=,~ - :-i; m.~- ss~ib, le for an-one] with special powers for helping others often lose opportunities that sorrow oe senslu~y expe ~e ~u, ~ ~ ~ ~,o ~ ' ' " e h' r " h r m n o ~ * -~rro'- on a[ for dang good at critical morn nts of ]sto y, wit t e e d us tO De truly sorry ior sin Wl~llOUl. SOlll ut:N~c~ ux ~v w I o--erflows to/ loss to the community as a whole, 0nly God can pass judgment senslole level ~orrow is nor ~rmy numau un e~ ~ v / f -r:-" "- "h~ same wa-- true snir [ on this aspect of social responsibility. some exmn~ ln~o leellflgs o g ITS1. 111 I, ~ ,Y~ r "/ "" ~ '- ~- ~'^i"" S*rhile reli/ Here, however, there is question of the guilt of individuals ltuat lay WILt nave l~s eitec~ mruu~nuu~ uu~ ,= ,~ -, ~ +~-~+- ~o "~+ +~11" om,~fional i+ cannot be ~enuine-| not properly of collective guilt. The very nature of the commu- s~,~ ~ : .~7" "-: " *'-~ ~o'",nity implies its juridical status The community can contract ly numan unless is arouses sensloly ext.rerienceu ~ove auu j y ! relobligations with other groups, or with individuals within its k.onversely, me reactions oi me senslole par~ OI man s na~u l ~ ~ ~.n +~ +ha mff~o,m,~ of fhe ~iritual life The| membership. The community can. moreover, inflict damage 2"~ '-'='~ "- ~"-'~%-~'~"-"-2"~n"2~-- --~hicl~we are aroused/ through its official ruling authority for which it can be held juri- passmn o~ anger Is o~eu um m~a ~ ux ~ / h +,o1,~ +ha+ demand extraordinary effort Praver/dically guilty. In the former case the community, as such, can is" ":""';'"'"7~stimmatea oy imagination." lne ~gnauan method of mental/~ be held responsible for the; fulfillment of its obligations,in the e hi h is h~tter case, for the repaiatlon of the damage prayer makes use of imagery related to the matt r w "c ' ] "' " being meditated upon. Always it is the whole man who acts,] IT IS WRONG, HOWEVER, to impose these burdens unfairly, even though the powers of body and of soul have different de-[ or to single out particular individuals upon whom they will be green of importance from one act to another. [ placed I~ is wrong, moreover, to punish individuals as scape- " Q HOW i)OES SOCIETY AFFECT THE MORAL LIVES OF[ goats for the community, unless there is evidence that, as indi- INDIVIDUAL MEN~ " ] viduals, they were guilty of criminal cooperation: The concept! -A. The Christian ;hilosophy has always opposed the tendency[ of collective guilt does not imply the responsibility of individualsI to think if/" society as an all-embracing entity which brings about[ to submit to punishment, or to make reparations, as though they the impoverishing and the eventual dissolution of individual men.[ were personally guilty. l On the other hand, the entire population of a nation must ac- ~] knowledge the crimes 0f its leaders, and of its misguided masses, ![[[1~i[1~ |~ P !~N~ |[ and must cooperate in coordinated national effort to make rep- ~~ ,m~aa ** wn |] arations. No nation can claim immunity from the judgment of ~~ IS Qualified To Take Care |1 human authority on the question of its collective guilt. Nations, /~:i! of Your Everyday Insurance1[ no less than individuals, can be guilty of injustices ; they cannot m~~ii::! Needs |t disclaim responsibility towards one another on the ground that ~~i!:::i Office WO 4 5977 ][each nation is responsible only before God. ~~ ~::i "" TR : "4^~ ][ THE CONCEPT OF COLLECTIVE GUILT, as it has been pro- --name /-o u II posed in modern times, issues from a philosophy which subor- ~~]~B |1 dinates the individual to the state, and regards the state as the ~~ii~ source from which the rights of individuals proceed. A philosophy ~~i:il~~. of society which starts from the principle that individual men, ~:=:+:~:'~ with bodies informed by spiritual souls, are independent before ~t Brtd et s Parish " g ' " God, and receive inalienable rights immediately from God, must regard the state as existing for individuals, and must not attri- bute to the state the personal characteristics which reside only in its individual members. Fifth-Century Cathedral Found PFAFFENHOFEN, Austria--I The workmen first came upon Workmen restoring Pfaffenhof-lwell-preserved walls beneath the dr" h hur hIf undati ns of the parish church en s ~m-century p is c c [They then found a bishop's seat of the Assumption nave uncov-/or "cathedra " identifiable by ered what is believed to be the[ its walled-in i~ase. oldest cathedral in the moan- The findings are believed to tainous Tyrol. date from the fifth century. QUALITY BUILT HOMES 3 bedrooms, 20 12 driftwood paneled family room, 2 car garage, built in caloric kitchen. Plas- tered walls- Hardwood floors --- full basement. We will finance. 3515 AUBURN OFF' W 4-7885 ROCKFORD MODEL TR 7-2046 PAINT CNARt GOOD HIDING OUAUTIES EASY BRUSHING CONTAINS MILDEW INHIBITANTS Qdm. )Mary Carter Paint Factories All Mary Carter Oil Base .Paints, Rubber Base, Stains, Varnishes and Enamels 2nd Complete Line of Sundries "Visit Our Store and SAVE" :/ 4640 N. Second St.--Loves Pork TIL 7,5418 Purchase Program Everyone! Pagel's Rental Purchase Plan 9r Pogel's FHA New Home Plan Pagel's Trade In Plan . Pagel's 10% Down Plan Pagel's Work Credit Plan Almost Anyone Can Buy a Home New Homes and Apartments Now Available to Compare! Construction Co 536 Windsor Rd. Rockford, ~lh Call TR 7 7804 Today THE OBSERVER FRIDAY, AUGUST 18, 1961 Sees Red Gains Among Workers Marian Fathers SANTIAGO Chile -- A group tent has reached a point where ,To Meet Aug. 22 of priests from rural areas in revolution seems possible. ~ t[11 ~,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t Chile have sent a joint letter to The priests said the causes of WOODSTOCK -- The last pre- --1- i--- large Alessandri Rodriguez ask- this dissatisfaction are lack of school meeting of Marian Cen- ing for "early and basic im- understanding by the govern- tral high school's Father's club en" f "h f rm la--r r ' ~ will be Tuesday, Aug 22 in the provement in me concuuon el m t o t ea oo e ssui- " ', AMBOYrJosephT McGrath 63 St .~ .~ ~ . o . . . scnool caleterla Jerry ~mltn, Patrick arish "2 ' ' ' tne t~nllean iarm workers " ierlng and misery and recent p,Aug. . |president, has appomted the fo1- AURORA--Bertrand J. McEnn, ~5, HoWl The priests emphasized the:communist demands for land re-llowin~ new members to the ad- Angels parish, Aug. 10. o Alvar0 Gonzalez, 39, St. Therese parish,Irapid and alarming advance of lform which would give property fvisory board: Ray Murphy of Aug. 9. [ John D. Meketl, 45, St. Nicholas par']communism among the farm~tO each worker. [Hartland: Dr. S. J. Rug gero of ~s~ Au.~. 27 ~ I . I The priests asked the govern-I Wonder Lake" Robert Conway ,Joseph ~TomDres, /U, HOly~nge s par-lworKers . . . .o . I . .' .- . o :ish, Aug. 11. Iment to neaa on tne communistlm woodstocK; r'aul wengetoz !AJgh~2 g. NH~es, 72, St. Mary parish, They said they s~oke as indi- plans by just distribution of Cary, and Francis Sehmittof BELV'mERE--Mrs. Katherine P. nouss,]viduals who are well acquaintedlfarm lands which would permit I Johnsburg. 7% $?. Ja.rnes paris~ Au~ 11 . i with the present mood of the lthe workers to become indepen-[ The new appointments bring St~a:~s~t~2~;ost~era~ris~h '~erh'' farm workers and warned that dent farmers, cultivating their the board to its full quota of DUNOeE--Mrs. Kathryn Cooney, 11.! the workers' justifiable discon-lown ground. 114 members. St. Catherine parish, Aug. B. EAST DUBUQUE--Sheriff Richard C. Bingham, 60, St. Mary parish, Aug. ELGIN--John P. Dillon, 66, St. 2Lau-- rence parish, Aug. 11. JOHNSBORG--Bernard (Bones) Smith, 60, St. John parish, Aug. 10. MARENGO--Ray McAndrews, 70, Sa- cred Heart parish, Aug. 4. MAYTOWN--James E. McLaughlin, 47, St. Patrick parish, Aug. 1. OREGON--George Crocker, 78, St. Mary parish, Aug. 11. PROPETSTOWN--MartIn McNamara, 88, St. Catherine parish, Aug. 7. ROCK FALLS--FredOltmans, 70, St. Andrew parish, Aug. 4. ROCKFORD--Mrs. Marie S. VerKuilen, St. James Pro-Cathedral, Aug. 14. I ROCKFORD--Mrs. Mary B. 8ertolasi i 81, St. James Pro-Cathedral, August 15.! SYCAMORE--Mrs. Margaret L. Ryan,[ 92, St.~Mary parish, Aug. 11. I CHiCAGO--Raymond T. Waters, 80, Pis- takee Bay, Our Lady of Mount Carmel parish, Aug. 4. i Takes Final Vows JOLIET -- Sister Brigid Marie : Jacobs, daughter of Mr. and~ Mrs. Robert Jacobs, St. Joseph parish, Freeport. was one of 13 Sisters of St. Francis of Mary Immaculate to pronounce final vows during profession ceremo-! hies at the Cathedral of St. Ray- mond here, Saturday afternoon, Aug. 12. Fifteen other young women received the habit of the order i during the ceremonies. ("ALPINE VALLEY") We Are Continuing Our Open House During August---- Ready Now For Back To School Time. ALL LOTS FULLY IMPROVED HOME PRICES'START AT $11,300, INCLUDES LOT Fayments As Low As $80.00 Per Month Including Taxes and Insurance Plus Painting NAME YOUR OWN DOWN PAYMENT Route 173 To Alpine Rd. -- Turn North & Follow Signs These are conventionally built homes Material Purchased Locally Lobar Done by Local People CONVENIENT TO ST. BRIDGET'S CHURCH & SCHOOL TELEPHONE TR 7-2549 "JUST IN TIME FOR SCHOOL" HOME OWNERS are better citizens and more wisely participate in aiding the welfare of their city, state, and country. HOME OWNERSHIP d is easy in any of the follow- ing: 2907 Ridge Ave. (N. West) 3 bedrooms and utility II room; large living room ond kitchen. Just under the teens. 2012 Leigh St. 3 bedroom Colonial--~ about 1 acre of land---- " Owner transferred--must sell. High teens and good Donn Anderson WO S-1918 Ruth Cahill EX 9-4464 Howard Johnson EX 9-3771 Russ Brown WO 8-0408 RUSSELL F. BROWN & ASSOCIATES 618 Rockford Trust Bldg. WO 8-0408 Zoned for Business: 2509 Broadway. 3 bedroom home~ plus 50xl20 lot. Lo- cal business zoned. 914--1st Ave.: 2 family flat. Local business zoned; only $13,500.00. 1320 Florist Drive: 5 room bungalow; very clean. Exp. Up close to bus and schools. $17,400. 130 12th Street Just listed: 2 family flat; 5 rooms up and down. Can be used as 3 bedrooms. Price only $16,500.00. Drive By: 3912 Borrington Road. 3 bedroom ranch. 216 Pearl Ave.: Loves Pork 4 bedroom bungalow, $12,- 500.00. Rudy Gustafson Realty WO 8-3778 Ken. Kordell WO 8-1744 Dick Adams EX 9-5151 gram--if you wish) DRIVE OUT TODAY!! EDW. ZIENER REALTOR ROCKFORD TRUST BLDG. WO $-8781 Eves. WO 2-3813 Suburban Living On 3 acres of valuable land just south of Harlem Road on Route 173, at St. Bridget's Parish. 3 bedroom ranch home, farm size kitchen, full basement. MAKE AN OF- FER. Eve. Grace Wierson WO 3-0746 or Mabel Haynes, WO 4-54;13. FARMS Excqllent set of buildings on this 40 acre farm within 8 miles of Rockford. 65 acres with 4 bedroom newly remodeled home. Eve. Edsil Harrolle--Rockton 2-6115. ST. ANGEL AGENCY Realtor WO 8-9805 our A SMALL HOUSE PLANNING BUREAU DESIGN NO. C.646 / TO A STRANGE tiff? House hunting will be eas- ier this time, thanks to o nation wide organization that finds the house you want ot the price you want to pay. No cost or obliga- tion either. INTER-CITY REAL ESTATE REFERRAL SERVICE INCORPORATED CA,L: BOB REALTY REALTORS WO 8.5791 EX 9-1860 I CONTRACT BUYERS 2 to 5 bedrooms ns low as $500 down, $60100 per month. 2817 1 lth St. 1741 Pershing Ave. 918 No. W~llard 1924 Loomis 3326 Potter St. 441 UndGrwood 1117 Grant Ave. F.H.A. BUYERS 1712 15th Ave. 805 18th St. 2124 19th Ave. 816 Alliance 1827 Genoa St. EVES: RAY PEARSON EX 9-3060 DALE BURTON WO B-66S0 HELENE BURD WO B-7089 MaNTlE SMITH --.WO3-$626 REALTOR WO 5-0964 , West High Here is a 3-bedroom home for the thrifty on Custer Ave. A brick and frame post war home with spacious 27' living room, one bedroom down and two up--priced under $15,000. Westview School A newer bright cheerful 2- bedroom home with center hall, good eating space, loads of closets, in o con- venient North End area. FHA financing is arranged, it is easy to buy, so let us show you. M. PICKEN REALTOR Dial WO 3-4828 (On Owen Center Road one mile North of Hoisted) ST. BERNADETTE'S PARISH A well balanced community of ,homes valued from $25,000 to $50,000. Half acre or larger. Homesites priced from $2,750 and up, many wooded Club plan with swimming pool, club house, 10 acres of parks among oak and h',ckorys. St. Berna- dette's school car Duo#. j[ CARRICO & WILGUS, II NEWS TOWER WO 4-7829 i .