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August 18, 1961     The Observer
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By THE REV. JOHN RYAN ON WHAT GROUNDS DOES ONE GET AN ANNUL- MENT FROM THE CHURCH? WHAT STEPS ARE TAK- EN? ALSO, HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE AND HOW MUCH DOES IT COST? Speaking of "'getting an annulment" is misleading be- cause it seems to indicate that the Church gives them out just for the asking. Nothing could be farther from the truth. An annulment in the Catholic Church is a dec- laration by ecclesiastical authority that a certain mar- riage contract is null and void. It is not the dissolution of an existing marriage bond but a decla- ration that a real marriage bond never existed in this case. The search for the validity of a marriage does not concern it- self with what has happened after the con- tract was made and consummated but rather how the contract was entered into. If there were any invalidating obstacles to a marriage at the time of the cere- mony, the marriage is null and void. An annulment is a declaration to this effect. Invalidating obstacles or grounds for an annulment are. for instance: a previous spouse still living, under age, impotency, disparity of religion without a dispensation, defect of form (a Catholic attempting marriage before an authority other than a priest), etc. A Catholic who suffers under an impediment in this classification cannot contract a valid marriage. In the event that a cm:emony was entered into with the impediment unknown or concealed, it is in- valid. If the impediment brought to light can be removed, the marriage can be validated. If not. the Church de- clares the union an invalid one in a declaration of nullity. One who thinks or knows that he has grounds on which his marriage is null and ,void should approach his parish priest for a preparation of the case which is then pre- sented to the diocesan chancery office. Here it is pro- cessed and submitted to the proper ecclesiastical court. How long does it take? As long as it takes the parish priest and the chancery office to gather the facts through the testimeny of the parties themselves and their various witnesses, to prepare them for the court and then. as long as it takes the court to decide the case: usually many months, sometimes years. The co~t varies with the amount of work that has to be done. just as costs in any legal procedures vary. The cost is never excessive. As a matter of record every annual report from the Sacred Rota at Rome shows a proportion of cases that were handled gratis. t at IF A NON-CATHOLIC ASKS WHY THE CHURCH SETS A PRICE ON REQUIEM MASSES, ETC WHAT EXPLAN- ATION WOULD YOU GIVE? I would tell him that the practice of giving the priest a stipend of some sort in return for his offering the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass goes back to the early custom in the Church when the faithful used to give the actual bread and wine. wax for the candles, etc which were used at the altar. Today the usual custom is for the person who asks the priest to offer a Mass for a special intention, to give him a donation which is, in reality, a contribution to his support. How much does it cost to have a Mass said? It doesn't cost anything. The priest does not ask a price for the Mass. That would be simony--a sin strictly forbidden by Canon Law. He accepts an offering, freely gwen, which the donor understands is an alms to him. The amount of the offering is determined by custom or by the local Ordi- nary. In some places, custom or the will of the Ordinary arrive at a stipulated amount: in other places no stipu- lated amount is asked. In any event, the priest will never demand an offering to say a Mass. It would be interesting to be able to compute the number of Masses offered every day without an offering given to the priest. The following schedule of Mass stioends for the Rock- ford Diocese was set forth in the Second Synod of the Diocese of Rockford, celebrated March 11, 1958. (a) Low Mass $2.00 (b) Sung Mass 5.00 (c) Solemn High Mass 30.00 (1) Celebrant 15.00 (2) Deacon . 7.50 (3) Subdeacon 7.50 (Statute 352) It is customary tn the Diocese of Rockford to give an of- fering of $15.00 on the occasion of a wedding or funeral, unless for a Solemn High Mass. when it would be $30.00 as stated above. (Statute 360). 4r ~ 4t WHEN A WOMAN HAS GIVEN BIRTH TO SIAMESE TWINS 80 CLOSELY UNITED THAT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO SEPARATE THEM, IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO ALLOW THEM TO DIE, ON THE GROUNDS THAT I]tEATH IS PREFERABLBE TO SO UNFORTUNATE A MODE OF LIVING? It is the law of God, promulgated by the Catholic Church, that every human being that is born into the world has a right to at least the ordinary means of preserving his life. Hence. even those children who are born in the con- dition described must be given the necessary food. shel- ter. ordinary medical treatment, etc necessary to pro- long their lives as long as God wills. But there would be no obligation on their parents to provide extraordinary means of preserving life. such as a very expensive or diffi- cult operation. 4r ~t HOW DID ST. PAUL DIE? He was martyred, dying by the sword on the same day that St. Peter was crucified. ~ 4r Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: Father John Ryun, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is not neeesBary to sign your name unless you wish a per- sonal reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. We can say that the family is the unit of the state; that it is the cell that makes up the formation. Round the fam- ily do indeed gather the sanctities that separate men from oats and bees. Decency is the curtain of that tent: liberty is the wall of that city; property it I~ut the family fame; honor is but the family flag. --G. K. Chesterton 0 VoL XXVI, No. 33 ~ August 18, 1961 THE MOST REVEREND LORAS I. LANE Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL --.-- Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women' Page Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Buslne~ ROBERT J. STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLA 1 Circulati ~ The Observer printed weekN at, 413 Pleasant Sffeet 8eolt, W~ e~l|in, is the officioI newl~oer of the Catholic Dlocem ef Rockford. Second clou ~ostoge paid o1 eeloit Wisconsin. Sublcrlpflens $4.00 pII tee! prel)eid tn the Unltee Metes ALL COMMUN/CATIONS "SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO TH| OBSERVER. 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREE1 ROCKFORD ILLINOIS. POSTMASTERs Please send form 2$79 to tkl OBSERVER, 1240 Nelell b await, aetkfed, UlinoiL The appointment of Amleto Cardinal Cicognani to the post of Vatican Secretary of State is cause for great happiness in the United S t a t e s. As Apostolic Delegate to our country from 1933 to 1958 Cardinal Cicognani acquired a vast and de- tailed knowledge of the Church here. On leavings Washington in 1958 for his new assignment in Rome. he referred to the United States as "our beloved America" and stated that he was deeply saddened to leave this land that he had come to consider as his own country. When announcements of Vatican p o s t s a r e made the average Catholic in America usually does not recognize the name. But the a p p o i n t- ment of Cardinal Cicognani e v o k e d special in- terest because of his many years here in t h i s country serving the Church and us. There was a kind of )ersonal note for American Catholics. It would be interesting to have a study of the number of priests in this country who trace their priestly powers to our f o r m e r Apostolic Dele- gate. In the course of his years here. he consecra- ted 58 American Bishops--more than any o t h e r espiseopal consecrator in t h e history of t h i s country Each of these Bishops ordains p r i e s t s each year. Their number must be very great. Be, cause of the privilege of the Apostolic Succession --the life stream of the Church--the spiritual in- fluence and heritage of Cardinal Cicognani will never cease in the United States. The office of the Vatican Secretary of State is one of the most important in the government of the Church. It requires skill in diplomacy and a vast knowledge of people and places. The H o 1 y Father. on the occasion of the death of the late Secretary, Cardinal Ta[dini, s t a t e d that the / "NOW. LET'S HAVE SOME A TION' REAPINGS AT RANDOM I i anne By GERARD E. SHERRY Whatever one's political point of view it ~s heartening to watch President Kennedy perform a national service at his press conference last week Some 450 newspaper reporters from all over the world attended the conference and expected startling statements in answer to the recent bluster and threats of Nikita Khrushchev over Berlin. These reporters, instead, witnessed the great game of diplomacy played at its best. Mr. Kenne- dy spurne& Mr. K's ranting and raving and. instead, reiterated the desires of the U.S. government to seek every peaceful means to a solution of the Berlin question The President pledged that the United States would go "to the brink" in the search for peace and justice. Road of Reasoning + Whereas Mr. Khrushchev was taking an exercise in military mathematics, Mr. Kennedy took the road of calm reasoning. The Russian leader had informed us that he was building a bigger and better bomb. The "better" here referred to a greater power of obliteration. He noted 21 nuclear bombs would take care of Britain: six or seven for France, and nn equal number for Italy. And Mr. Khrushchev reminded us here in America that we would Cardinal Secretary of State is the closest a n d strongest helper of the Pope in the government of Holy Church. Cardinal Cicognani has a weighty responsibility. We felicitate him on the honor bestowed and as- sure him, as a personal debt of gratitude, that we will beseech Almighty God to assist him in his important work for which his talents, his exper- ience, his dedication and the Holy Father's desig- nation so aptly fit him. In the days immediately before us. newly con- structed Catholic institutions will be dedicated in two communities. In Aurora, Bishop Lane will dedicate the 16 room school and the Sisters' con- vent in Holy Angels parish Sunday, Aug 20 The following day, our Bishop will bless the new St. Joseph hgspital in Belvidere These occasions call for hearty congratulations to the planners and builders of these institutions. Through the generous cooperation of the people they rise in increasing numbers and furnish addi- tional means for the fulfillment of the Church's mission. The new Holy Angels school in Aurora will be dedicated in the fiftieth year after the erection of the parish's first school. Here is a fine record of fifty years of Catholic education with ever ex- panding numbers served by expanding facilities. More than half of that history has been 'under the direction of the Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. F. Connor. the pastor of Holy Angels since 1932. Msgr. Connor is to be congratulated for his vision and his labor m meeting the needs of his parishioners to pro- vide the best in Catholic education. Also to be commended are the Dominican Sis- ters from the Springfield motherhouse, who have staffed the Holy Angels schools these fifty years. With the national spotlight focused on the cost of education, the parishioners of Holy Angels have a right to be proud of their record of generous sup- port in building and operating their schools for these many years. The dedication of the new St. Joseph hospital in Belvidere will climax a long-held dream for the Sisters of St. Joseph from Nazareth mother- house, Concordia. Kas. It was in 1900 that these Sisters opened their first hospital in Belvidere. Those decades of faithful service to the sick have earned for the Sisters a cherished place in the hearts of Belvidere and surrounding communities. The new $2,000,000 hospital was erected with the contributions of Catholic and non-Catholic friends of these communities added to a federal grant. If we ever wonder why the construction of buildings is a necessary part of the Church's work, the Aurora and Belvidere events give ample proof. The key ideas were given by Christ--go and teach, permit the little ones to come unto me. whatever you do to the least of these you do to me. a cup of cold water given in my name is given to me . Through the dedicated work of religious in schools and hospitals these injunctions for Christian liv- ing are made concrete by actual service. As time goes on, the institutions grow obsolete and inade- quate: but the ideals behind them never tarnish. New buildings are erected and willing workers are thus given the means to fulfill in a more com- plete way these timeless invitations of Christ. It is a kind of second spring when the new insti- tutions are ready and the Bishop gives the official sanction of the Church that the work of Christ should continue. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM Recent published reports re- veal that the Soviet economy and American business enter- prise have one note in common. Evidence of dishonesty prevails under both' systems. The Soviet commissars are plagued" by phony reports of "successes" claimed by the managers both of their collec- tive farm sys- tern and in their ]:':~!~iii~i;::~*:'*~*~![Ig':'::':~ industrial set- up. Some fear !iiiii! ~!iiiii! thepractiee c o u 1 d bring about an inner i a~:ii~ii:!~ collapse of the ~i::? Russian econo- my. The Com- munist o v e r- lords, after pro- longed discus- signs of the scandals, intend to take steps to crack down on the "subversives" who are thus dis- turbing the peace m the Soviet paradise. Perennial Problem It has been a long-standing presumption in Communist theo- ry that corruption automatically vanishes when Capitalism has been wiped out. In May, none- theless, the Soviet government decreed a pmson term of three years for "padding of state re- ports and deliberate distortion of reports on the fulfillment of plans." Human nature, evident- ly, is no less stubborn in a Com- munist police state than it is in the free atmosphere of Capital- -- II1111on FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. men is a scientific study made by Raymond C. Baumhart. S.J who is studying for his doctorate at Harvard business school. It is the result of a questionnaire sent to 1,700 executives in American industry and re- flects the opinions of business- men. from top-ranking "brass" down to non-management per- sonnel plus a scattering of pro- fessional people whose occupa- tions bring them into contact with industrial life. This unusual study points out two salient facts. First, unethi- cal practices of one kind or an- other are prevalent in American business. Second, the majority of business executives recognize the situation and would like to do something about it. Other Fellow Guilty When asked the question, "Which one practice you would most like to see eliminated?" 23% of the 1,700 executives list- ed the evils connected with gifts, gratuities, bribes and "call girls." Eighteen per cent consid- ered price discrimination and unfair pricing as a practice most in need of being corrected. Four- teen per cent listed dishonest ad- vertising. Ten per cent wrote of miscellaneous unfair competitive practices; 9% deprecated cheat- mg customers, unfair credit practices and overselling. Price collhsion by competitors, dis- honesty in making or keeping a contract and unfair treatment of ist enterprise employes were emphasized as The problem of unethical prac- the most in need of elim- tices is a perennial one in any ination by other respondents. type of society Unfortunately, in Four out of every five execu- our own country, perverse prac- tices seem to be coming more and more a part of otlr way of life. Just across the way from us here. in New York city, we are witnessing a scandalous sit- uation wherein the city feels ob- liged to sue a large list of con- tractors for substantial defects in the construction of public tires answering this question- naire admitted that there are practices, generally accepted, which they would consider un- ethical. An interesting sidelight was noted. When asked what they would do if faced with. the decision of going along with an unethical proposal, 62.70% con- ceded that the "average bust- schools Collusion between con- ness man would 'yield to the tractors and high-salaried school temptation, ii it involved a dis~ officials was the underlying advantage to himself or +" cause of the sordidness, company." Only 40 to 50%, how- Remarkable Survey A much wider picture, affect- ing the nation as a whole, is re- vealed by a remarkable survey ever, admitted they themselves would choose such a course. In other words, the "other fellow'" not I, is the cause of it all. Favor Ethics Code The encouraging feature of this fact-finding survey was the revelation that 71% of these published in the July - August is- sue of Harvard Bum'hess Re- nemy view. This report on the ethical attitudes of American business- 1.700 business executives are in favor of a code of ethics for the business world Fifty per cent of them favor it strongly, 21% with less enthusiasm, and only 10% expressed opposition to the idea. The Soviets intend to solve their problem in their usual way by compulsory, punitive govern- ment action. The American busi- nessmen stating their mews on the subject would seek a self-en- forcing code of ethics: some fa- voring action by management in each industry; others looking with favor upon an inter-indus. try code. Twenty-eight per cent would admit competent men out- side their industry to co-operate in the plan, but only 4% were willing to a.ccept government co- operation. Basic Problem This study leaves the reader with the impression that there is good-will in abundance by American businessmenseeking a better set of standards for indus- try. The problem is: Who will tie the beU around the cat's neck and how can it be done? Henry Ford II in April of this year stated publicly, "ft is up to us in our various companies and industries to see to the estab- lishment of our own form of principles of ethical practices, plus the effective means of self- policing those principles " Attorney General Robert Ken- nedy on more than one occasmn, basing his opinions on the find- ings of the department ol~ jus- tice, confirms Mr. Ford's impli- ed assertion of the need of such a code. Up To Management No one doubts the sincerity and the ability of the successful American businessman to form- ulate these needed standards of ethical conduct. But talk and discussion of opinions or written communiques are not enD.ugh. There is a job to be done an~l the only ones who can do it, the on- ly ones on whom the responsibili- ty falls, are men in top manage- ment. Adolph A. Berle. Jr quoted in this article, wrote: "Top man- agement has substantially abso. lute power. Thus the only real control which guides or limits their economic and social action is the real, though undefined and tacit, philosophy of the men who compose them." I not be immune to his wrath if we did not go along with his scheme to annex Berlin for the Communist empire. We've had tl~ese threats before. I suppose they should be taken seriously. We have no doubt that Russia has the military capability to destroy Western Europe and to in, flict heavy damage on these United States. But the con- verse is also true Mr. Kennedy could have reminded Mr. Khrushchev that America. on its own. has enough military might to de- stroy the whole of Russia. The number of atomic bombs it would take is beside the point. The fact remains that America has this capability. No one knows this better than Mr. Khrushchev. Sign of Strength There were some, in and out of Congress, who expected Mr. Kennedy to use the p r e s s conference to answer Khrushchev in violent terms. Yet, our President chose the better way. He spoke of peace with the confidence of a leader who had the strength to face the issue of war if need be. Our President rattled no sabers : made no threats: nor gave any ultimatums. He spoke of our desire for peace. But behind this peaceful facade the preparations for the ultimate showdown Were going on. Mr. Kennedy was speaking, and all the time was making sure that the big stick would be available as and when it is needed. Some people saw his failure to reply to Mr. Khrushchev's threats with counter threats as a sign of weakness. To me, how- ever. this is a sign of the President's st'reni~ Mr. Kennedy was not panicked by Russian bluster. He does not want a war hysteria creeping over these United States. He would much prefer to see our people engaged in peaceful pursuits, and production for peace and secur- ity. Hence, even though the war shadows loom across our horizon, the United States continues to promote other proj- ects. Constructive Leadership The Peace Corps program ]s under way; aid for Latin America is becoming a reality; aid for the rest of the world's needy is under way. And most important, we pur- sue with patience for a controlled world disarmament plan. To me. our President has g~ven an example of construc- tive leadership, which has been missing in high places in government for many a year. It can't help but impress not only our own people but the peoples of all the world. Mr. Khrushchev's methods are aimed at instilling fear in the ~ee peoples of Western Europe, and in this coun- try. His" bluster is meant to cower us in surrender before a shot is fired. He can succeed only if we lose faith in our leaders and the high ideals of this democracy. If we panic into the fear of saber-rattling there may be no other way but the sword. However. if we speak softly, facing the enemy with courage and resolution the battle will be won. There will be time to let the enemy see that in the holocaust of modern war that nobody wins; least of all Mr. Khru~hcheV. e