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THE OBSERVER PAGE 7 ] IDAY, AUGUST 4, 1961 Here's More About Pope John's Encyclical (Continued from page 6) ply"--and that of dominating nature--"Fill the earth and subdue Lt." These commands complement each other Certainly the Divine command to dominate nature is not aimed st destructive purposes. Instead it is for the service of life. We point out with sadness one of the most disturbing contradic- tions by which Our epoch is tormented and by which it is being consumed, namely that, while on the one hand are brought out in strong relief situations of want and the spectre of misery and hunger haunts us: on the other hand scientific discoverieS, tech- nical inventions and economic resources are being used, often extensively, to provide terribh instruments of ruin arid death. A provident God grants sufficient means to the human race to solve in dignified fashion even the many and delicate problems attendant upon the transmission of life. But these problems can become difficult of solution or even insoluble because man, led astray in mind or perverted in will, turns to such means as are opposed to reason and hence he seeks ends that do not answer man's social nature or the plans of Providence. Cooperation on a World Scale WORLD DIMENSIONS OF EVERY IM- PORTANT HUMAN PROBLEM The progress of science and technology in all aspects of life nultiply and increase the relationships between political corn- and hence render their interdependence ever more profound and vital. As a result, it can be said that problems of any importance, whatever their content may be--scientific, technical, economic, social, political or cultural--present today supranational and often worldwide dimensions. Hence, the different political communities can no longer ade- quately solve their major problems in their own surroundidgs and with their own forces, even though they be communities A L L T H I N JAPANESE PREMIER RECEIVED BY POPE--Shortly before leaving for his summer home in the cool Alban Hills near Rome, Pope John XIII received in the Vatican palace the Japanese Foreign Minister Zentaro Kosaka. He is shown close to the Pope, with Noritake Yoshioda, Jap- anese ambassador to the Holy See, and Mrs. Kosaka. (NC photo) T 0 A L L M E N Church require a sense of mortification and of penance which assure the rule of the spirit over the flesh and offer an efficacious of the week to worship, in which the spirit, free from material preoccupations, can lift itself up and open itself by thought and by love to heavenly things, examining in the secret of its con- science its obligatory and necessary relations towards its Creator. In addition, man has the right and even the need to rest in order to renew the bodily strength used up by hard daily work, to give suitable recreation to the senses and to promote domestic unity, which requires frequent contact and a peaceful living together of all the members of the family. Consequently, religion, morality and hygiene, all unite in the law of periodic repose which the Church has for centuries trans- lated into the sanctification of Sunday through participation in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, a memorial and application of the redemptive work of Christ for souls. It is with great grief that We must acknowledge and deplore the negligence of, if not the downright disrespect for, this sacred law and the consequent harmful results for the health of both body and soul of Our beloved workers. In the name of God and for the material and spiritual interests of men, We call upon all, public authorities, employers and work- ers, to observe the precepts of God and His Church, and We remind each one of his grave responsibilities before God and society. RENEWED OBLIGATION In what We have briefly exposed above, it would be an error if Our sons, especially the laity, should consider it more prudent fo lessen their personal Christian commitment in the world Rather should they renew and increase it. Our Lord, in the sublime prayer for the unity of the Church did not ask the Father to take His own from the world but to preserve them from evil: "I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil." We should not create an artificial opposition between the per- fection of one's own being and one's personal active presence in the world, as if a man could not perfect himself except by putting aside all temporal activity and as if, whenever such action is done, a man is inevitably led to compromise his personal dignity as a human being and as a believer. Instead of this being so, it is perfectly in keeping with the plan which are notable for the high level and difusion of their culture, . . t, th tabor ond industriousness of their citizens for the ever the technical and economic progress, there will he neither lmeans of expiating the punishment due to sin from which no one of Divine Providence that each one develop and perfect himself effic;e'nc:"of :hei; economic s-stems and the vastness' and the!Justice nor peace in this world until men return to a sense of except Jesus Christ and His Immaculate Mother, is exempt, through his daily work, which for almost all human beings is of a .;~ ~ l"i--I -ommuni'ies react o h their dignity as creatures and sons of God the just and final In reducing social principles and directives to practice, one temporal nature. Today, the Church is confronted with the im- ,~ ~ oi meir territories, ro It ca c t n eac ' 'wA o,~. ,~I" it, K~l.ef nf n ,~ol|t t, ot~,4 h~, Him ~|gn ct~ngr~fpd usuany goes through thr~ee stages: rewewmg and sltuatmn, juog-'mense task of giving a human and Christian note to modern other And it may be said that each succeens in nevelopmg its l! s ~ J ~" in~ it in the light of these principles and directive and deciding ~ t . 4 ~" ' civilization, a note mat Is requireo anu Is almost a~tl~etl lot uy - ~ from God becomes inhuman to himself and to those of his kind, t b contmbutin~, to the development of the other. Hence, under- what can and what should be done according to the mode and Y - ~because the orderl-" relation of societ-" "resu""oses the orderl ~tna~ c~wnzauon ttseu mr ~ts ~ur~ner aevempmen~ ano even zor its stanaing ann cooperation are so necessary y y t, t,t, y oegree perm1~cea oy tne SltUa[lon ltSetL - " m,'continued existence As we have already emphasized, the Church c~ ~. ~ ~ ~ ; ~,o ,~.;,~o,~,~;,;,~,oi h relation of one s conscience with God, font of truth, justice and These are the three stages that are usually expressed m the fulfills this missmn through her lay sons who should thus eel beings and among different peoples the conviction of the urgent,love, three terms: look, judge, act. ' of mutual understanding and cooperation is true beloved! pledged to carry on their professional activities as the fulfillment necessity becomingI It is that the persecution of so many of Our dearlyIt is particularly important that youth be made to dwell often ever more widespread. But at the same time, it seems, that men, brothers and sons, which has been raging for decades in many. on these three stages and as far as vossible reduce them to ac- of a duty, as the performance of a service in internal union with especially those entrusted with greater responsibility, show l countries, even those of an ancient Christian civilization, makes tion. The knowledge acquired in this way is not merely abstract God and with Christ and for His glory. As St. Paul points out: themselves unable to understand one another The. root of such ~ever clearer to Us the d~gmhed" ' " super- "'mmty" of the persecuted and '~deas but ~s somethm' g to be translated into" deeds "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do till for inability is not to be sought in scientific, technical or economic ~the refined barbarity of the persecutors, so that, if it does not In the applications of doctrine there can arise even among ~, "l"r-' o'i God" and "all whatsoever ,ou do in world or in work reasons but in the absence of mutual trust Men, and consequent- ~ give visible signs of repentance, it induces many to think upright and sincere Catholics differences of opinion When this *"~ ~ " ~ ~ ' ly states fear each other Each fears that the other habors plans ~ o " ernici-usl t ical a ect : " " do all in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God . ' ' . I DUe It IS always true mat me m st po y yp sp happens, mey snoulo ve watcnlul to Keep alive mutual esteem , of conquest and is waiting for the favorable moment to put these' and the vatner ny turn -. ;of the modern era consists m the absurd attempt to reconstruct and respect and should strove to find points of agreement for ef- o" " " " ~ Inns into effect Hence each or~,amzes its own ae~ences and P " . . . ~a solid and fruitful temporal order prescinding from God, the ficacious and suitable action. They should not exhaust themselves l In temporal affmrs and mst~tutmns, whenever an awareness of arms ~tself not for attacking, so ~t ~s stud but to deter the po n 1 r " only foundation on which it can endure and to wa t to ce eb ate in interminable discussions and under pretext of the better or values and supernatural ends is secured, there is at the same I tentml aggressor against any effective mvasmn. ' ' " ' ' h [ the greatness of man ~y drying up the font from which tha, great- the best, omit to do the good t at ~s possible and ~s thus obhga- i s ~ ~ v . . - . ,t me a tren.~themn~ of their ~ower to achmve their ~mmedlate As a consequence, vast human energies and gigantm resources nest springs and from which it is nourished, hence restraining tory J ;~; o,~ wh, ,~o ,f t3, r~,~,o ~o,t~ o,~ ,~ll *r,-" are employed for nonconstructive purposes. Meanwhile. in the and if possible extinguishing man's sighing for God Everyday Catholics in their economic-social activities often find them- ~v minds of mdlwdual human beings and among peoples there ex emence continues to w~tness to the fact amidst the most bit I / Seek ye therefore, first the kingdom of God and His 3untrue ' " P ' ' ' " " ' ' - selves in close contact with others who do not share their view of l ' " arises and grows a sense of uneasiness and reluctance which ter delusions and not rarely in terms of blood, that, as stated life In these circumstances, Our sons should be very careful that~and all these things shall be added unto you," children of the lessens the spirit of initiative for works on a broad scale, in the inspired book: "Unless the Lord build the house, they labor they are consistent and never make compromises on reIigion and light The fundamental demands of justice are more securely ~ w'CKNO'~LEDGE THE in vain that, build it.",morals At the same time let them show themselves animated bylgrasped in the most difficult and complex regions of temporal FAILURE TO lrlti~.rl)T~.3~T~.TTAT ig~rlr~TT T Tr'fi~2" g~E'~ rlI~TTT:? ~J'-~PTAT 1a spirit of understanding and disinterestedness ready to cooper-~ 1- P~ rtllZ' ~J.~l/~L /t, LIU/t, LIlI'UIP 11[1115 ~UUl/qkll.~ ate loyally in achieving objectives that of their nature are good,affairs' namely those in which selfishness--individual, group or MORAL ORDER ~ s-~t, +u~ s~utro~u lor at least reducible to good It is clear, however, that when the racial--often causes thick clouds of darkness. When one is ani- DOCTRINE ~r ~nr~ ~nu,~-~ Hierarchy has m de a decision on the point at issue, Catholics mated by the charity of Christ one feels united to others, and the The lack of reciprocal trust finds its explanation in the factI n" " " r n lore bound to obey their'direcuves because the Church has the needs, suffering and joys of others are felt as one's own. that men, especially the more responsible ones, are inspired in xne bnurcn ~s me sea uaro oea er a o neram o~ a way o~ me, . ' . . [~hi " i v "o -ate Imght and obhgatmn not merely to guard ethical and rehgmusl Consequently, the action of each one. no matter what the ob- cn s er up t a the unfolding of their activity by different or radically opposed . ', t principles, but also to intervene authoritatively in the temporal concepts of life. Unfortunately, in some of these concepts thel in fundamental principle m sucn a conceptmn ~s, as is" seen sphere when it is a matter of judging the application of these ective or what the circumstances iu which it may be realized, existence of the moral order--an order which is transcendent, from what has thus far been said, that individual human beings principles to concrete cases, cannot help being more disinterested, more energetic and more universal, absolute, equal and binding on all--is not recognized, are and shouid be the foundation, the end and the subjects of all human because charity "is patient, is kind . . . seeketh not her Thus, they fail to meet and understand each other fully and the institutions in which social life is carried on, that'is individual MANIFOLD ACTION AND RE- l own . . . rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoieeth with the truth openly in the light of one and the same law of justice, admitted human souls considered and insofar as they are and should be . . . hopeth all things, endureth all things. ' and adhered to by all. It is true that the term justice and the by their nature intrinsically social, and insofar as they are inI SPONSIBILITY phrase "demands of justice" are uttered by the lips of all. How- the plan of Providence, and by their elevation to the supernatural' these utterances take on different and opposite meaning 'order. From instruction and education one must pass to action. This LIVING MEMBERS IN THE MYSTICAL Wherefore the repeated and ~mpassioned appeals to justme n e r d ~s a task that belongs partfcularly to Our sons the linty, since ," " " " From this fundamental principle which guara tees th sac e r t r ' BODY OF CHRIST ~d the demands of justice, rather than offering a possibility in virtue of thei condi ion of life they a e constantly engaged in mgm~y ot me mmwuuat, me ~eacnlng omce ot me ~nurcn nas of meetim, or of understanding increase the confusion, sharpen activities and in the formation of institutions that in their finality/ b ' ~ we canno~ conctuoe our encyclical the contrasts and keep disputes inflamed In consequence, the made clear, with the cooperation ot enhghtened pmests and lay- are temporal " I without recalling another -,+ . . . ,suvdme ~rum ano reamy, namely ~na~ we are living members of behef is spread that to enforce one s rights and pursue one s own men, especially during this last century, a social doctrine which In performing such a noble task, it is essential that Our sons the Mystical Body of Christ, which is His Church: interests, no other means are left than recourse the violence in points out with clarity the sure way to reconstruct social rela- be professionally qualified and carry on their occupation in con- "For as the body is one and hath many members; and all the front of the most serious evils~ tionships according to universal criteria based on human nature, formity with its own proper laws in order to secure effectively the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are 6he body: desired ends. It is equally necessary, however, that they act Mutual trust among men and among states cannot begin or the various dimensions of the ~temporal order and the character- within the framework of the principles and directives of Chris- so also is Christ." increase except by the recognition of and respect for the moral istics of contemporary society and which are hence acceptable tian social teaching and in an attitude of loyal trust and filial obe- We invite with paternal urgency all Our sons belonging to order ~ dmnce h e e~ther the clergy or the linty to be deeply conscmus of th~s dxgmty to all. ' to ecclesiastical aut ority. L t them remember that when " " . . ' ~, " . " o~heitm ;:nlte rd~rsd~S : itn h ]cdt e:CneP~ :nnl G:dmaCtUtri:lffo/r:m But it is indispensable, today more than ever, that this doe-t~i)~ethe execution of te?~ra! affairs they do not fol!ow!~ci-a~doo~sOb~itaYv~U:, toithemft~: th:; th~yy:reagrrtf~;dO:n~Oht~nr!s~a~ o g a . a Y g " frint~ ht~ knt~wn s.-;.-.-.;1 + ~ -n~ n~la,~ ;n,~ oo~i,~ r~al; ;nip s a o ol ec~ives oz u ris~ian social teacning not only On t ey . ism but is also a splint endowed with thought and freedom. He ~^ ~ t~ th^ ~;ff~rent si uations allo'" and de ~faii in their obligations and otten violate the rights of their breth- they are thus called to live by 12~s very me. e ce, demands therefore a moral and rehgmus order which bears ,~,~ ~ i a ~et cllffi~dt +~le b,~f n rr~t n~'l~l~ ~r~ t~ +~ ren, but they can even cast into discredit that very doctrine carries on one s proper activity, even if it be of tempo more than any maternal ~value on the dlrectmns and solutmns it ~:~ ~, ~. : ~. which in spite of its intrinsic value, seems to be lacking in a in union wzth Jesus the Dxvme Redeemer, every work ecomes a U~I'I'~V lll~ UUL V.)2 W 1.(~II yvt2 IIIU3L W ~[11 ll,V IIIVIL~ lit)L UIUy ~t /IAI" ' . can give to the problems of individual and group life within the ~ ^,~ ~ *t~-~ *~'ro''m" '-"t +h 1-~ but -1-^ -11!truly directive power, i contmuatmn of His work and penetrated with Redemptivepower: national communities and the relationships among them m~e~n'ofgoo~du will': ts As we have already noted, modern man has greatly deepened :'He tha! abide!h in me, and I in him, the same oearem much It has been claimed that in an era of scientific and technical t and extended his knowled e of th 1 w j truit,"~,~,~,t,~oi,~,fo,~,~~t mus oecomes a worKo,a hob~ *, ~t~na a,~wnicn comrmu~es ~o one's per- g e a s ot nature ann nan mane t thers the triumphs, men can construct their civilization without God. But INSTRUCTION instruments that make him lord of their forces. He has even ~r :itls o~'themR~edempti''d"leavensSwi~het'l~e"ferment of the the truth is that these same scientific and technical advances ]produced gigantic and snectacular works Nevertheless, in his l Gospel the civilization in which one lives and works. re ent human roblems of a worldwide sco e which can beI we reaHirm strongly mat me unrls~ian socm~ ooctrlne is an " " ~ p s p P integral part of the Christian conception of life.striving to master and transform the external world, he is in Our era is penetrated and shot through ey raaieaI errors, it is solved only in the light of a sincere and active faith ,in God, the i While We note with satisfaction that in several institutes this danger of forgetting and of destroying himself. As Pope Pins XI, torn and upset by deep disorders. Nevertheless, it is also an era . I . . . begmmng and end of man m the world, doctrine has been taught for some time. we feel urged to exhort Our predecessor, observes with deep sadness in the encyclical in which immense posstbtlitnes for good are opened to the These truths are confirmed by the ascertainment that the same that such teaching be extended by regular systematic courses in "Quadragesimo Anno": Church. limitless horizons which are opened up by scientific research Catholic schools of every kind, especially in seminaries. It is to "And so bodily labor, which was decreed by Providence for theI Beloved brethren and sons, the review which in union with you help to give birth to the conviction and to develop it that mathe- be inserted into the religious instruction programs of parishes good of man's body and soul even ofter original sin, has every-lWe have been able to make of the various problems of modern matical "and scientific notions point out but do not gather and and of associations of the lay apostolate It should be spread by where been changed into an instrument of strange perversion: fortsocial life from the dawn of the teaching of Pope Leo XIII has mu~h less express entirely the more profound aspects of reality, every association of the lay apostolate. It should be spread by dead matter leaves the factory ennobled and transformed, where been, as it were, an unfolding of a series of statements and re- The tragic experience that the gigantic forces placed at the dis- every modern means of expression--daily newspapers and per- men are corrupted and degraded " t solves on which We invite you to dwell and meditate deeply. Take posal of technology can be used for purposes both constructive 'iodicals, publications of both a scientific and a popular nature, In a similar manner Pope Plus XII, Our predecessor, rightly courage in the cooperation of all for the realization on earth of and destructive makes evident the pressing importance of spirit-'radio and television, sse ted that our age is marked by a clear contrast between the " ' " ' . . " ; a r ' the Kingdom of Chmst It ~s A kingdom of truth and of life a ual values so that scientffm and techmcal progress may preservei To this diffusion, Our beloved sons, the laity, can greatly contri- immense scientific and technical progress and the fearful human kingdom of holiness and grace; .a.kingdom of ustme,of love and its essentially instrumental character with reference to civiliza- bute b, knowin~' this doctrine makin~ their actions conform to decline shown by "its monstrous masterpiece" of "transforming~,of peace,' which assures the enjoyment of the neavemy goons mr tion " : ~ ' . ." lit and by zealously striving to make others understand it. I man into a giant of the physical world at the expense of his ~pirit ~ which we were created and for which we long. ~urther, me sense ot increasing ~issatismction wnicn spreaoS, n thislwhich is reduced to that of a pygmy in the supernatural andI Here one is concerned with the doctrine of the Catholic and o ahoy snoulo De convlncecl tnat ~ne truth a o eltlcacy ot ardam ngof humanliving destroysbeings inthenationalillusion ofCOmmunitieShopedWithfor aparadisehigh stand-on [~h is most easily ~ ~r~ ~, they can h,~,~ I eternal world." Apostolic Church, mother and teacher of all the nations, whose a tea~ ing :mon7%.:ted .hen s;~.~w.that] Once again there is verified today, in a most striking manner,' light illumines, enkindles and inflames, whose warming voice earth. But at the same time, the consciousness of inviolable andlit oilers a sate path. Ior ~ne somuon o~. present day .o~mcultms. umversal rights becomes ever clearer, and ever more In th~s way they bring ~t to the attentmn of those who are op forcefulI . what was asserted of the pagans by the Psalmist' "men forget filled with heavenly wisdom pertains to all times, whose power their own being in their works and admire their productions to ever offers efficacious and suitable remedies for the increasing is the aspiration for luster and more human relations. TheseIposed to it because !hey are ig.norant of ~t .anti" they" may even the point of idolatry: the idols of the Gentiles are silver and gold, needs of men and for the deprivations and anxieties of the present cause a ray o~ ~ts ngnt to enter men tne~r minas are all motives which contribute toward making human beings " " the works of the hands of men ",life. That voice is in union with that of the Psalmist of old which EDUCATION i unceasingly fortifies and lifts up our minds: "I will hear what the more conscious of their own limitations and toward crettting in them a striving for spiritual values. And this cannot but be a happy earnest of a sincere understanding and profitable coopera- tion. A social doctrine has to be translated into reality and not just merely formulated. This is particularly true of the Christian social doctrine whose light is truth, whose objective is justice and whose driving force is love. Hence We Stress the fact that it is of the greatest importance that Our beloved sons not only know this social doctrine but that they be educated according to it. Christian education should be complete in extending itself to every kind of obligation. Hence it should strive to implant and foster among the faithful an awareness of their ~ obligation to carry on their economic and social activities in a Christian man- n@r. The transition from theory to practice is of its very nature difficult. And this is especially true when one tries to reduce to concrete terms on a social doctrine such as that of the Church. It is difficult on account of the deep ~'ooted selfishness of human beings, the materialism with which modern society is steeped and the difficulty of .singling out precisely the demands of justice in particular cases. Consequently, it is not enough for this education that men be taught their social obligations. They must also be given by prac- tical action the methods, that will enable them to fulfill these duties A TASK FOR ASSOCIATIONS OF THE APOSTOLATE OF THE LAITY Education to act in a Christian manner in economic and social matters will hardly succeed unless those being educated play an active, role in their own formation, and unless the education is also carried on through action Just as one cannot acquire the right use of liberty except by using liberty correctly, so one learns Christian behavior in social and economic matters by actual Christian action in those fields. Hence, in social education the associations and organizations of the lay apostolate play an important role. especially those that have as their specific Objective the Christianization Of the eco- nomic and social sectors of the temporal order. Indeed, many RECOGNITION OF AND RESPECT FOR THE HIERARCHY OF VALUES Ir~ Our paternal care as Universal Pastor of Souls, We urgently invite Our sons to take care that they keep alive and active an awareness of a hierarchy of values as they carry on their tem- poral affairs and seek their immediate ends. Certainly, the Church has taught and always teaches that scientific-technical progress and the resultant material well- being are truly good and, as such. mark an important phase in human civilization Nevertheless, these things should be valued according to their true worth, namely, as instruments or means used to achieve more effectively a higher end, that ~i facilitating Lord will speak in me: for he will speak peace unto his people: and unto His saints: and unto them that are converted to the heart. Surely his salvation is near to them that fear him: that glory may dwell in our land. Mercy and truth have met each other: Justice and peace have kissed. Truth is sprung out of tha earth: and ~ustice hath looked down from heaven. For the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit. Justice shall walk before him: "and shall set his steps in the way." Such is the desire that We make in ending this letter, to which We have for a considerable time given our solicitude for the Universal Church. We desire that the Divine Redeemer of men, "who of God is made unto us wisdom and justice and sanctifica- tion and redemption," may reign and triumph gloriously through- and promoting the spiritual perfection of mankind, both in the out the ages, in all and over all. We desire that human society natural and the supernatural order o ma fwml en o rot rit , {being restored to order, all nail ns y " y j y p pe y We desire that the warning words of the Divine Master shouldlh. in~ss and "eace ever sound in the ears of men "For what doth it profit a man, if ave v he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his own soul? Or As a portem of mese w~s.nes, anu as a .plectge o~ .our pater nat Or what exchange sha" a man ~ive for his soul~'' [good will, may the aposmnc blessing, wmcn we g~ve ~rom our " " heart in the Lord, descend on you, venerable brethren, and on SANCTIFICATION OF rlol vl~,v~ [all the faithful entrusted to your care and especially on those who A l Will reply with generosity to Our appeals. To safeguard the dignity of man as a creature endowed with a Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, May 15, in the year 1961, the soul formed in the image and likeness of God, the Church has third of Our Pontificate. always demanded an exact observance of'the third precept of, the decalogue: "Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day." God has a right to demand of man that he dedicate a day members of these associations can draw profit from their daffy experiences to form themselves more completely and also to con- tribute to the social education of youth. At this point it seems opportune to recall to all, the great and the lowly, the Christian concept of life, which requires a spirit of moderation and of sacrifice. Unfortunately, there is everywhere prevalent a hedonistic conception and tendency which would re- duce life to the search for pleasure and the full satisfaction of all the passions, with a consequent great loss to both body and soul. On the natural level, simplicity of life and temperance in the lower appetites is a wisdom productive of good. on the super- natural level, the Gospels and the whose ascetic tradition of the, Readers of THE OBSERVER are reminded that the N.C.W.C. publications office in Washington has announced that it will issue the encyclical "Mater et Magistra" of His Holiness Pope John XXIII in pamphlet form sometime this month For those wishing such a copy, inquiries may be sent to the N.C.W.C 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W Washington 5, D.C: II I III I I II I I IIII I II I Part IV Reconstruction o],Social Relationships in Truth, Justice, and Love INCOMPLETE AND ERRONEOUS IDEOLOGIES After all this scientific and technical progress, and even be- of it. there remains the problem that the social relation- ships should be reconstructed in a more human balance both in regard to individual political communities and on a world scale In the modern era different ideologies have been devised and spread abroad with this in mind. Some have been dissolved as clouds by the sun. Some have undergone substantial changes. Others have waned much and are losing still more their attrac- tion on the minds of men. The reason is that they are ideologies which consider only certain and less profound aspects of man. And this is so because they do not take into consideration certain inevitable human imperfections, such as sickness and stiffering, imperfections which even the most advanced economm-social systems cannot eliminate Then there is the profound and im- perishable religious exigence which constantly expresses itself everywhere, even though trampled down by violence or skillfully smothered In fact. the most fundamental modern error is that of consider- ing the religious demands of the human soul as an expression of feeling or of fantasy, or a product of some contingent event, which should be eliminated as an anachronism and as a obstacle to human progress. Yet by this exigency human beings reveal them- selves for what they really are: beings created by God and for God, as St. Augustine cries out:"You made us for Thee, 0 Lord, and ear heart is restless until it rests in Thee." Moreover, what- ,?