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PAGE 6 THE OBSERVER FRIDAY, AUGUST 4, 1961 (Following is tl~e second and last installment :from the text the human family and furnish an increasing number of raw ms- of an English translation of the social encyclical of His Holi- terials for industry. ness Pope John XXIII, Mater et Magistra, which was released Furthermore, it is a work which carries with it the dignity of by the Vatican Press of[ice. The first part of the 25,000 word a profession which is marked by its manifold relationship with encyclical, longest in the history of the Church, was published machines, chemistry and b'ology, relationships in continued in the July 28 edition of THE OBSERVER.) development because of the repercussions of scientific and tech- rt~xTrtftn~t~TT!nical progress on the farm. It is also a work characterized by a GRADUAL HARMONIOUS = moral dimension proper to itself, for it demands capacity for OF THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM It is also necessary that the economic development of the political communities should take effect in a gradual way and maintain a harmonious balance between all the sectors of pro- duction. That is to say, it is necessary that in cultivating the soil there should be put into practice innovations concerning meth- ods of production. There should be a choice of the type of agriculture and enterprise that the economic system considered as a whole allows or requires. And these should be put into practice, as far as possible, in a degree proportionate to that carried out in the industrial and service sectors. In this way, agriculture absorbs a larger amount of indus- trial goods and demands a higher quality of services. In turn, it offers to the other two fields and to the whole community orientation and adaptation, patience in its many hours of wait- ing, qCnse of responsibility, spirit of perseverance and enterprise. We should like to recall to your minds also that in agriculture, as in other sectors of production, association is a vital need today, the more so as this sector has as its base the family size enterprise. Rural workers should feel a sense of solidarity one with another and should umte to form cooperative and profes- sional associations, which are both necessary if they are to benefit from scientific and technical progress in methods of production, if they are to contribute in an efficacious manner to defend the prices of their prcducts, if they are to attain an equal footing with other economical professional classes who are like- wise usually organized. They need to organize to have a voice in political circles as well as in organs of public "~dministration, for today almost nobody hears, much less pays attention to, iso- lated voices. the products which best meet, in quality and quantity, the needs of the consumer, contributing to the stability of the purchasing AWA]~I~NI~ i'tl~ TI-II7 II~IT~elANIII~ g-tl~ T1LIi2 power of money, a very positive factor in the orderly develop-I ~=~,~-~,~.~,a~ ,~ L~L~.~ J ~U~,~Z-L~U,v~- ~L~,~ ment of the entire economic system. I COMMON GOOD In such a way V~e believe that it would also prove le~s diffi- cult, both in areas which the population is leaving as well as inI However, rural workers (as workers in every other produc- those which they are flocking, to control the movement of the tire sector) must be governed in using their various organiza- labor force, set free by the progressive modernization of agri-]tions by moral and juridical prlnciples. They must try to recon- culture. It would be less difficult to provade the labor force with I clio their rights and interests with those of other classes of the professional training that will enable its members to fit workers, and even subordinate one to the other if the common t good demands ~t The rural workers en a ed in lm room th profitably into the other sectors of production a~ with the ". g g " " p " g e economic aid and preparation and spiritual assistance that will~condition of the whole agricultural world can legitimately de- bring about their integration into society APPROPRIATE POLITICAL ECONOMY To obtain an economic development that preserves a har- monious balance among all the sectors of production, a prudent political economy in the area of agriculture is also required, a l~litical economy that takes into account taxation, credit, social insurance, price protection, the fostering of integrating indus- tries and the adjustment of the structures of enterprises. TAXATION The fundamental principle in a system of taxation based on justice and equity is that the burdens should be proportionate to the capacity of the people to contribute. But the common good also requires that in the assessment of taxes, it must be borne in mind that in the sector of agriculture the returns develop more slowly and are exposed to greater risks in their production, and that there ~s greater difficulty in obtaining the capital neces- sary to increase them. For the reasons mentioned above, the possessors of capital have little inclination to make investments in this sector. They are more inclined to invest in the other sector instead. For the same reason agriculture investments cannot yield a high rate of interest. Nor can agriculture as a rule earn large enough profits to furnish the capital necessary for its own development and the normal exercise of its affairs. It is there- fore necessary, for reasons of the common good, to evolve a special credit policy and to create credit institutes which will guarantee to agriculture such capital at a rate of interest on suitable terms. SOCIAL INSURANCE AND SOCIAL SECURITY In agriculture the existence of two forms of insurance may be indispensable: one is cpncerned with agricultural products, mand that their efforts be seconded and complemented by the public authorities when ihey show themselves aware of the common good and contribute to its realization. At this point, it is with pleasure that We express Our satis- faction with Our sons in various parts of the world who are actively engaged in cooperatives, in professional groups and in worker movements with a view to raising the economic and so- cial standards of rural workerS. In the work on the farm the human personality finds num- erous incentives for self-expression, for self-development, for enrichment and for growth even in regard to spiritual values. Therefore. it is a work which is conceived and lived both as a vocation and as a mission. It can be considered as an answer Area Group Visits Pope Fifteen members of the Newman club at Northern Ill. university, DeKalb. on tour through Europe, had an audi- ence with Pope John, July 14 in the Vatican's Hall of Benediction. The occasion was the promulgation of the new encyclical "Mater et Magistra." The group, accompanied by the Rev. Hubert V. McGinn, director of the club and the Rev. James Molloy, spent several days at Lourdes and Paris. Half the members then went to Ireland while the others journeyed to Spare. to God's call to actuate His providential plan in history. It may also be considered as a noble undertaking to elevate oneself and others and as a contribution to human civilization. ACTION TO BRING EQUALITY AND TO ENCOURAGE THE ADVANCEMENT OF UNDERDEVELOPED REGIONS sense of responsibility which weighs upon each and everyone, especially upon those who are more blessed with this world's goods. It is obvious that the obligation to help those who find them- selves in want and misery, which the Church has always taught, should be felt more strongly by Catholics, who find a most noble motive in the fact that we are all members of Christ's Mystical Body. John, the Apostle, said: "In this we have known the char- ity of God, because He hath laid Down His life for us: and ~ve ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. He that hath the substance of this world, and shall see his brother in need, and shall shut up his bowels from him: How doth the charity of God abide in him?" We therefore see with satisfaction that those political com- munities enjoying high economic standards are providing as- sistance to political communities in the process of economic de- velopment in order that they may succeed in raising their stan- dards of living. EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE There are countries which produce consumer goods and espe- cially farm products in excess, while in other countries large segments of the population suffer from misery and hunger. Jus- tice and Humanity demand that the former come to the aid of the latter. To destroy or to squander goods that other people need in order to live is to offend against justice and humanity. While it is true that to produce goods, especially agricultural products, in excess of the needs of the political community can cause economic harm to a certain portion' of the population, this is not a motive for exonerating oneself from the obliga- tion of extending emergency aid to the indigent and hungry. Rather, all ingenuity should be used to contain the negative effects deriving from surplus goods, or at least to make the entire population equally share the burden. Emergency aid, although a duty imposed by humanity and justice, is not enough to eliminate or even to reduce the causes which in not a few political communities bring about a per- manent state of want, misery and hunger. These causes flow for the most part, from the primitiveness or backwardness of their economic systems. And this cannot be remedied except by means of varied forms of cooperation directed to making these citizens acquire new outlooks, professional qualifications and scientific and technical competence. This cooperation must also consist of putting at their disposal the necessary capital to start and to speed up their economic development with the help of modern methods. We are well aware that in recent years the realization has grown and matured that efforts should be made to favor the economic development and social progress in the countries which face the greatest difficulties. World and regional organizations, individual states, founda- tions and private societies offer to the above mentioned coun- tries, in an increasing degree, their own technical cooperation m all productive spheres. And they multiply facilities for thous- ands of young people to study in the universities of the more de- veloped countries and to acqmre an up-to-date scientific, tech- nical and professional formation. Meanwhile world banking in- stitutes, single states and private persons furnish capital and give life. or help to give life, to an ever richer network of econ- omic enterprises in the countries on the way to development. We are happy to profit by the present occasion to express Our sincere appreciation of such richly fruitful works. But We can- not excuse Ourselves from pointing out that the scientific, tech- nical and economic cooperation between the economically de- veloped political communities and those just beginning or on the way to development needs to be increased beyond the pres- en~ level. And it is Our hope that such a development will char- acterize their dealings during the next decades. On this matter We consider some reflections and warning opportune. AVOIDING THE ERRORS OF THE PAST obstacles to the good and multiply the incentives and invitations to it. Moreover, the Church, entering the life of the people, is not nor does she consider herself to be an institution which is im- posed from outside: This is due to the fact that her presence is brought about by the rebirth or resurrection of each person in Christ. And he who is reborn or rises again in Christ never feels himself constrained from without. Indeed, he feels him- self liberated m the deepest part of his being and thus open towards God. And whatever in him is of worth, whatever be its nature, is reaffirmed and ennobled. "The Church of Jesus Christ," as Our predecessor Plus Xll wisely observes, "is the repository of His wisdom; she is certainly too wise to discourage or belittle those peculiarities and differ. ences which mark out one nation from another. It is quite leglti- mate for nations to treat those differences as a sacred inheri- tance and guard them at all costs. The Church aims at unity, a unity determlned and kept alive by the supernatural love which should be actuating everybody. She does not aim at a uniformity which would only be external in its effects and would cramp the natural tendencies of the nations concerned. Every nation has its own genius, its own qualities, springing from the hidden roots of its being. The wise development, the encouragement within limits, of that genius, those qualities, does no harm. And if a nation cares to take precautions, to lay down rules, for that end, it has the Church's approval. She is mother enough to befriend such projects with her pray- ers. We notice with profound satisfaction how today also, the Catholic citizens of the countries moving towards economic de- velopment are not, as a rule, second to any in taking their part in the effort which their own countries are making to develop ,J and raise themselves in the economic and ~eial fields. Furthermore, Catholic citizens of the economically developed countries are multiplying their efforts to help and make more fruitful the work being done for the communities still develop- ing economically. Worthy of special consideration is the varied assistance that they increasingly give to students from the coun- tries of Africa and Asia who are scattered throughout the uni- versities of Europe and America, and the preparation of per- sons trained to go to the less developed countries in order to engage in technical and professional activity. To these, Our beloved sons, who in every continent show forth the perennial vitality of the Church in promoting genuine prog- ress and in giving life to civilization, We wish to join Our kind and paternal word of appreciation and encouragement Population Increase and Economic Develop. meat LACK OF BALANCE BETWEEN POPULA- TION AND MEANS OF SUSTENANCE In recent years the problem concerning the relationship be- tween population increase, economic development and the avail- ability of the means of sustenance, whether on a world plane or as it confronts the economically developing political communi- ties. is very much to the fore again On a worldwide scale, some observe that according to suffi- ciently reliable statistics, in a few decades the human family will reach a quite high figure, while economic development will proceed at a slower rate. From this they deduce that, if nothing is done in time to check the population flow, the lack of balance between the population and the food supply in the not too distant future will make itself felt acutely. Insofar as this affects the political communities which are developing economically, still relying on statistical data, it is clear that the rapid spread of hygien"~ ~asures and of appro- priate medical remedies will greatly .~ ~ce the death rate. es- pecially among infants, while the birth rate. which in such countries is usually high, tends to remain more or less con- stunt, at least for a considerable period of time. Therefore, the the other with the labor force and their families. Among citizens of the same political community there often Wisdomdemands that the political communities which are them- excess of births over deaths will notably increase, while the Because the return per head is generally less in agriculture exists a marked econom:c and social inequality due for the most selves in the initial stage or a little advanced in their econom- productive efficiency of the respective economic systems will than in the sectors of industry and of services, if would not be part to the fact that some live and work in areas that are eco- ic development keep ~efore their eyes the ~ctual experiences not increase proportionately. Accordingly, an improvement in in accordance with the standards of social justice and equity to nomically more developed, while Others live and work in areas of the already developed political communitieg, the standards of living in these developing political communities set up systems of social insurance or of socia! security in which I that are economically underdeveloped. Whe~ this.situation oh- More and better production corresponds to a rational need is impossible. Indeed it is inevitable that things will get worse. thet~lo~inc~s:lc~:rmd~lde~OwtheefOr~StaOftiaalglricloltwUral labor and[ tsh~:SidJtUrStme lind. eqmty demand !hat the public authorities and is also an absolute necessity, However, it is no less neces- Hence, to avoid a situation which will result in extreme hard- guaranteed to the sectors of industry and o~ ser~re~?awetn se ] this efid ~e~peb~i~n:utth ri~e:::h dnslne?:a~l~Ya/ n a:hC:umnPd]~h ~o'~r~ea:d:a~: dmtrbi~eu::d ~:~::gtha~t1 tmherb::: o~rt~cedpolC~ima~ :hrtePs, theb:rt~r::ht :~ :hpW eUldih:ve recourse to drastic me~ sider that so~al policy must aim at guaranteeing that the in-[developed areas there exist assured essential public services, community Hence an effort should be made to see that social " surance allowances made to the people should not be materially i which should be of the kind and extent suggested or requird progress proceeds at the same pace as economic development. THE TERMS OF THE PROBLEM different no matter in what economic sector they work or the,]~, the surroundings and which shoul'd usually correspond to the This means that it be actuated as far as possible, gradually, income on which they live. [ average standard of life that obtains in the national community, and harmoniously in all productive sectors in those of agricul-[ To tell the truth, considered on a world scale, the relation- The systems of social insurance and social security can con- i Furthermore, it is necessary to develop a suitableeconomic and ture industr- and services ' [ ship between the population increase on the one hand and the tribute efficaciously to a redistribution of the overall income social policy regarding the supply of labor and the dislocation ' ~' " } : ~ . ~, ^-~ ~ .~,~,;,~. ~ ,^~ ~; ,h~ "" " w towarn economic he- tUUllUilllU ul V lU[Jllll Ub allU aV llLaldlll .y ut l.uvu u.iJp.t.t .v vii t of the polmcal commumty according to the standards of justice [of populatmn, wages, taxes, interest and investments, with ape- The pc!meal commumties on, the ay I ~th ,~o.~ no* *e~m at least for the moment and in the near and equity. It can therefore be considered as one of the instru-Icml attention to expanding industries. In short, there should be velopment generany presen~ me]r own unmts~a~ame: ~ ~,teri future ~Ecreate ~ difficulty In every case the elements from merits for restoring the balance in the standards of living in !a policy capable of promoting complete employment of the labor v!d.u.ality, due either the!r resources anu t~ .~peyl~e ~rae2 [ whichone can draw sure conclusions are too uncertain and the different categories of the people, force, of stimulating enterprising initiative and of exploiting the ot meir own n.atur.al.environment, or to .t.ne~r rraujuons:. ~rc:[ -han-eal~le ' ,natural resources of the place quently anounalng In human values, or to me ~yplcal quall~y ul[ c g . PRICE PROTECTION But governmental action along these lines must alwa-,s beIthelr own members. [ Besides, God in His goodness and wisdom has diffused in ha- ,[justified by the demands of the common good, which requirest The economically developed political communities, when lend-[ turn inexhaust!ble resources and has given to man the lntel!l- Given the nature 0f. agricultural production it is necessary [that all three areas of production--agriculture, industry, and ing their help, must recognize and respect this'individuality and[ genre and gemus to create tit instruments to re.aster ~t ano. to that an effective system of regulation should be enforced to/Pnhlie .services---be developed gradually, simultaneously and overcome the temptation to impose themselves by means of these[turn it to satisfy the needs and demanos oi. me. q.ence, .me protect prices, making use to this end of the numerou ex l harmomously in order to obtain un o n ic develo real solutmn of the problem is not to be found m expements ma~ ' " s pe- " ity n the national level, works upon the commun4ty in the course of eco ore' p-[ : dmnt.s which present-day economic technique can offer. I Special effort must be made that the citizens of the less de- meat. ] fiend the moral order, estabhshed by ~oo an.a w~l.cn m3ure me It ~s desirable that such re ulatmn should be r~marfl h veloped reg one take an active art f ver origin of human hfe but m a re,sewed scmntffic and techm . g " p "y t e] ~ " p,lnso ar as circumstances ~ [ Y ." " " . . . " ork of the interested artms thou h su ervls~on b th ~ lallow, m their economic bet erm n cal effort on the part of man to deepen and extend his dominion P " ; g P "" y e pub1"c, " " t e t. DISINTERESTED WORK [ " ' 1 alread authority cannot be dispensed with. ~[ Finally, it is necessary to remember that even nrivate enter I over nature. The progress o~ science and tecnno ogy, y this subject it must not be forgotten that the nrice of prise must contribute to effecting an economic and social bal]l But the bigger temptation with which the economically de-/ realized, opens up in this direction limitless horizons. agricultural produce represents much more than the-reward ance among the different zones of the same country And in-' veloped political communities have to struggle is the tempta-/ We realize that in certain areas and in the political communi- of labor than remuneration of capital, deed public authorities, in accordance with the principle of sub- tion to profit from their technical and financial cooperation so asi ties of developing economies really serious problems and dif- Pope Plus XI in the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno rightly sidiarity, must encourage and help' private enterprise, entrust- to influence the political situation of the less developed countries ficulties can and do present themselves, due to a deficient neon- observes that, "a reasonable relationship between different ing to it, as far as efficiently possible, the continuation of the!with a view to bringing about plans of world domination, cmic and social organization which does not offer living eondi- economic development. If this takes place, it must be explicitly declared that it would tions proportionate to the rate of population increase and also wages here enters into consideration," but he immediately adds: ~ " be a new form of colonialism Which, 'however cleverly disguised, to the fact that solidarity among peoples is not operative to a "Intimately connected with this is a reasonable relationship be- tween the prices obtained for the products of the various eco- I~LIIYllNATION OR REDUCTION OF UN. wculd not for all that be less blameworthy than that from which sufficient degree. nomic groups: agrarian, industrial, etc." While it is true that farm produce is destined above all to satisfy the primary needs of man. and hence their price should BALANCE BETWEEN LAND AND POPULATION be within the means of all consumers, still this cannot be used It is not out of place to remark here that there are not a few as an argument to compel a part of the citizens to a permanent countrie~ where a gross disproportion between land and popula- state of economic and social inferiority by depriving them of tion exists. In some countries there is a scarcity of population the indispensable purchasing power in keeping with man's dig- and tillable land abounds. In others, on the other hand, the pop- nity. For this would be diametrically opposed to the common ulation is large, while arable land is scarce. good. Furthermore, there are some countrieS where, in spite of rich INTEGRATION OF FARM INCOME natural resources, not enough food is produced to feed the popu- lation because of primitive methods of agriculture. On the other It is also opportune to promote in agricultural regions the iland, in some countries, on account of modern methods of agri- industries and services pertaining to the preservation, process- culture, food surpluses have become an economic problem. ing and transportation of farm products. It is further desirable "It is obvious that the solidarity of the human race and Chris- that in these regions undertakings in respect to other economic tian brotherhood demand that an active and manifold coopers- sectors and other pro~essional activities be developed, so that tion be established among the peoples of the world. They de- farmers can complete their income in the surroundings where they live and work. It is not possible to determine a priori ,what the structure of farm life should be because of the diversity of the rural con- ditions in each political community, not to mention the im- mense difference obtaining between the nations of the world. But if we hold to a human and Christian concept of man and the family, we are forced to consider as an ideal that commu- nity Of persons operating on internal relations and whose struc- ture is formed according to the demands of justice and the principles stated above, and still more. enterprises of family size. With these in mind we should exert every effort to realize one or the other, as far as circumstances permit. But it is necessary to call attention to the fact that the en- terprise of family size requires economie conditions which can ensure sufficient income to enable the family to live in decent comfort. To attain this end. it seems necessary not only that farmers be given up-to-date instructions on the latest methods of eultivation, and technically assisted in their profession, but it is also indispensable that they form a flourishing system of co- operative undertakings, be organized professionally and parti- cipate in public life, not only in administrative institutions, but also in political movements. RURAL WORKERS PROTAGONISTS IN THEIR OWN BETTERMENT mand a cooperation which permits and encourages the move- ment of goods, capital and men with a view to eliminating or reducing the above mentioned unbalance. Later, on We shall treat this point in more detail Here, however, We should like to express Our sincere appre- ciation for the highly beneficial work which the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O.) is undertaking to establish fruitful accord among nations, to promote the modern- ization of agriculture, especially in countries in the process Of development, and to alleviate the suffering of hunger-stricken peoples. Demand o] Justice in the Relationship between Nations Di]fering in Economic Development THE PROBLEM OF THE MODERN WORLD Probably the most difficult problem of the modern world con- cerns the relationship between political communities that are economically advanced-and those in the process of development. The standard ot living is high in the former, while in the latter countries poverty, and in some cases extreme poverty, exists. The solidarity which binds all men and makes them mem- bers of the same family requires political communities enjoy- ing an abundance of material goods not to remain indifferent to those political communities whose citizens suffer from pov- erty, misery, and hunger and who lack 'even the elementary rights of the human person. This is particularly true since, given the growing interdependence among the peoples of the earth, it is not l~ssible to preserve lasting peace if glaring economic and social inequality among them persists. Mindful~ of Our role of Universal Father, We feel obliged to stress solemnly what We have stated in another connection: "We are all equally responsible for the undernourished peoples Therefore. it is neeessar to edueate one's eonselenee the We are of the opinion that rural workers must take active part in their own economic advancement, social progress and cultural betterment. They can easily see how-noble is their work either because they live out their lives in the majestic temple of creation; or because their work often concerns the life of plants and animals, a life that is inexhaustible in its expression, inflexible in its laws, rich in allusions to God the Creator and Provider; or becaus~ they produce food neeezsary to nourish many .p~oples have recently escaped and which would influence But even in such a hypothesis. We must immediately and clear- negatively their international relations, constituting a menace ly state that these problems must not be confronted and these and danger to world peace, difficulties are not to be overcome by having recourse to meth- And it is, therefore, indispensable and corresponds tO the need ode and means which are unworthy of man and which find their of justice that the above mentioned technical and financiM aid explanation only in an utterly materialistic concept of man him- be given in sincere political disinterestedness, for the purpose self and of his life. of putting those communities on the way to economic develop- The true solution is found only in economie development and ment In a position to realize their own economic and social in social progress which respects and promotes true human val- growth, ues. individual and social. It is to be found only in economic In such a way a precious contribution to the formation of a development and social progress that is brought about in a world community would be made, a community in which all moral atmosphere, conformable to the dignity of man and to members are subjects conscious of their own duties and rights, the immense value possessed by the life of a single human be- working on a basis of equality for the bringing about of the uni- ing, and in cooperation on a world scale that permits and fa- versal common good. [vors an ordered and fruitful qnterchange of useful knowledge, RESPECT FOR THE HIERARCHY OF of capital and of manpower. VALUES RESPECT FOR THE LAWS OF LIFE Scientific and teehnical progress, economic development and We must solemnly proelaim that human life is transmitted by the betterment of living conditions are certainly positive ele- means of the family,-the family founded on marriage, one and indissoluble, raised for Christians to the dignity of a sacrament. ments in a civilization But we must remember that they are The transmission of human life is entrusted by nature to a per- not nor can they be considered the supreme values, in eom- son and conscious act and, as such, is subject to the all wise parison with which they are seen to be essentially instrumental laws of God, laws which are inviolable and immutable and in character. It is with sadness,that We point out that in the economically which are to be recognized and observed. Therefore, it is not developed countries there are 'not a few persons in whom the permissible to use means and follow methods that can be licit consciohsness of the hierarchy of values is weakened, dead or h:r the transmission of plant or anima~clif~. confused. Tl~at is, there are not a few persons in whom the spir- Human life is sacred. From its very ' ep ion, the creative ac- itual values are neglected, forgotten and denied, while the prog- tion of God is directly operative. By violating His laws, the Di- gress of the sciences and technology, econo/~ic development and Ivine Majesty is offended, the individuals themselves and hu- the material well-being are often fostered and proposed as the manity degraded and likewise the community of which they are preeminent, and even elevated to the unique, reason of life. This members is enfeebled. constitutes an insidious poison, and' one of the most dangerous, It is of the greatest importance' that the new generations be in the work which the economically developed peoples can give brought up with an adequate cultural as well as religious forms- to those on the way to development, those in whom ancient tra- tion. It is the duty and right of parents to obtain~this formation d'tion has quite often preserved a living and operating con- which leads to a profound sense of responsibility in all the ex- sciousness of some of the most important human values. To undermfne this consciousness is essentially immoral. One must respect it and. where possible, clarify and develop it so hat it will remain what it is: a foundation for true civilization. CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHURCH The Church, as is known, is universal by divine right. And she is universal historically ~rom the fact that she is present, or strives to be so, among all peoples. The entrance of the Church among a people has always brought positive reactions in the social and economic fields, as history and experience show. The reason is that people on becoming Christian cannot but feel obliged to improve the institutions and the environment in the temporal order, whether to prevent these doing harm to the di&niW of ma~ or m eliminat~ o~ ~edue.~ ~ )ressions of their life and therefore also in regard to the forming of a family and to the procreation and education of children. These ought' to be formed in a life of Faith and great trust in Divine Providence in order to be ready to undergo fatigue and sacrifices in the fulfilment of a mission so noble and often so arduous as is the cooperation with God in the transmission of human life and the education of offspring. For such education no institution provides so many efficacious resources as the Church which, even for this reason, has the right to full liberty to fulfiU her mission. IN THE SERVICE OF LIFE Genesis relates how God imposed on the first human beings two commandS: that of transmitting life--"incrgase a~d multi- (Continued ca paso D