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July 21, 1961     The Observer
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II I III Latin Catlmlic Press Under Severe Pressure See Page 10 Official Newspaper of the Rockford Diocese Vol, XVI--No. 29 ROCKFORD, JULY 21, 1961 10 PAGES VATICAN CITY -- (NC) --] His Holiness Pope John XXIII in his long-heralded social en- cyclical said that limited social- ization can benefit society and that rich countries have a duty to help the underdeveloped na- tions. FOUR NEW SOCIAL prob- lems confront modern man, the Pope said in his letter to the Catholic world. He said they must be solved in terms of truth, justice and love. He listed these problems: --The depressed state of agri- culture in an increasingly indus- trial and technological world. ---The great differences be- tween the underdeveloped na- tions and the technologically ad- vanced nations. --The world population in- crease and its relation to eco- notate development. --The lack of mutual trust among nations. for Letter The encyclical. Mater et Mag- istra, was written, the Pope said, because "We feel it Our duty to keep alive the torch lighted by Our great predeces- sors and to exhort all to draw from it inspiration and orienta- tion in the search of a solution to the social problems more adapted to our times." THE 2O,0~-WORD encyclical commemorates the 70th anni- versary of the publication of Pope Leo XIII's great social en- cyclical, Rerum Novarum. The new encyclical is dated May 15. But its release to the world was held up until July 14 so that translations in various languag- es could be given out simul- taneously. The encyclical is divided into four parts. The first part re- views teachings of Rerum No- varum and of subsequent docu- ments on similar subjects issued by Popes Plus XI and XII. Part Two is an explanation and development of the teachings of Berum Novarum. Part Three spells out the four major new aspects of social life and the l Church's teaching. The final part discusses the reconstruc- tion of social relationships on the basis of truth, justice and love. Socialization Underlining the teachings of his predecessors. Pope John re- affirmed the right of private property. He spoke of the evils of excessive governmental in- terference in social and eco- nomic life, but at the same time warned that public authorities may not remain inactive in promoting the public good. THE ENCYCLICAL discussed at length the phenomenon of "socialization." It is at the same time, the Pope said. "an effect and a cause of growing inter- vention of the public authorities in even the most crucial mat- ters." Pope John labeled social- ization the result of man's "na- tural tendency to join to- ether to attain objectives which are beyond the capacity and means at the disposal of single individuals." THE POPE HELD that so- cialization brings many advan- tages: "It makes possible, in fact, the satisfaction of many personal rights, especially those called economic-social, such as, for example, the right to the in- dispensable means of human maintenance, to health serv- ices, to instruction at a higher level, toa more thorough forma- tion, to housing, to work, to suitable leisure, to recreation." Pope John said that while so- cialization "restricts the range of the individual as regards his Plan to Print New Encyclical WASHINGTON -- (NC) -- The N.C.W.C. Publications office announced that it will issue the encyclical "Mater et Magistra" of His Holiness Pope John XXIII in pamphlet form sometime in August. liberty of action," it does not necessarily reduce men to auto- matons. He explained: No Danger "Socialization isnot to be con- sidered as a product of natural forces working in a determinis- tic way; it is, on the contrary, as we have observed, a creation of men; beingr conscious, free and intended by nature to work m a responsible way even if in their so acting they are obliged to recognize and respect the laws of economic development and social progress and cannot escape from all the pressures of their environment. "HENCE, WE CONSIDER that socialization can and ought to be realized in such a way as to draw from it the advantages contained therein and to remove or restrain the" negative as- pects "So long as socialization con- fines its activity within the limits of the moral order, along the lines indicated, it does not of its nature, entail serious dan- gers of restriction to the detri- ment of individual human be- ings; rather, it helps to promote in them the expression and de- velopment of truly personal characteristics; it produces, too, an organiv reconstruction of so- ciety, which Our predecessor Plus XI in the encyclical Qua- dragesimo Anno put forward and defended as the indispen- sable prerequisite for the satis- fying of the demands of social justice." Hails Encyclical The Pontiff asserted that "re- muneration for work, just as it cannot be left entirely to the law of the market neither can it be fixed arbitrarily; it must rather be determined ac- cording to justice and equity." Pope John hailed the issuing of Rerum Novarum as a major historic document enunciating the Church's social teaching. He said it was an action "not with- out hazard." HE SAID SOME believed "that the Church, face to face with the social question, should confine herself to preaching re- signation to the poor and to ex- horting the rich to generosity." But, said Pope John, "Leo XIII did not hesitate to proclaim and defend the rights of the worker." Ibis ir~l~l~l Pope John noted that Rerum I,~:~'~l~-mlNovarum clearly set down that ,~ pJ ~t," ~work cannot be treated as a World News 2 May They Rest 2 Coming Events 2 Catholic Charities 2 Meet the Clergy 3 Family Clinic 3 Mission Column 5 Women's Page 6 commodity, that the State can- not keep aloof from the eco- nomic world, and that workers have a right to organize. The encyclical noted that 40 years after Return Novarum, Plus XI issued his encyclical, Quadra- gesimo Anno, because doubts had arisen concerning private Theology for Everyman 7 property, the wage system and[ St. Vincent's Jottings 8 the attitude of Catholics towards[ Doris Answers Youth 8 : a type of moderate socialism. I Legion of Decency 8'n [ For Teens Only 9 basic opposmon ] TV Movie Guide 9 Pope John said Plus XI "era-[ '3. quiescant 10i phasizes that the opposition be-I tween Communism and Chris- tianity is fundamental and makes it clear that Catholics are in no way permitted to be sup- porters of moderate socialism because its supreme objective is the welfare of society, and be- cause it either proposes a form of social structure that aims solely at production, thus caus- ing grave loss to human liberty, or because it lacks every prin- ciple of true social authority." IN 1941, Plus XII again am- plified the Church's social teach- ing, affirming that "work is at one and the same time a duty and right of every human be- ing," Considering the new social problems facing the world to- day, Pope John dwelt at length on the problem of depressed agriculture. He said that the migration of farming popula- tions to the cities has assumed "massive proportions" in many countries. He said that it is ne- cessary "that tillers of the soil may not be possessed of an in- feriority complex but rather be (Contimted on page 5) Pope Leo XIII Pope John XXllI Pope Pins XI RERUM NOVARUM MATER ET MAGISTRA QUADRAGESIMO ANNO 1891 1961 1931 ENCYCLICAL THIRD IN GREAT TRILOGY--The teachings of the Catholic church on social problems is brought up-to-date and projected against present-day conditions in a great encycli- cal letter "Mater et Magistra" (Mother and Teacher) just issued by His Holiness Pope John XXIII. It is the third inn trilogy of great encyclicals dealing with this subject. The first was "Re'rum Novarum" issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891 and called the encyclical "On the Condition of Labor." The second was "'Quadragesimo Anno" issued by Pope Pins XI 40 years later and referred to as the encyclical "On Reconstructing the Social Order." Encyclicals take their Latin names fl'om the first words of the Latin texts of the letters. According to Social Action Expert st S By Father John F. Cronin, S.S. (N.C.W.C. NEWS SERVICE) The two papal encyclicals which have 'commemorated Leo XXIII's trialblazing encyclical on labor, "Rerum Novarum," have broadened the scope and refined the principles laid down in that encyclical. Both came to grips with new problems and situations that have emerged since Pope Leo's time. Pope Leo's encyclical of May 15, 1891 was addressed to the world but largely concerned it- self with conditions brought about by the industrial revolu- tion. Its primary emphasis was on labor in the manufacturing and mining industries. Pope Plus XI's encyclical of 40 years later, "Quadragesimo An- no," covered a wider range but touched mainly on manufactur- ing, mining and commerce. The present encyclical of His Holiness Pope John XXIII in- troduces the problems of farm- ing and of underdeveloped na- tions striving to catch up with highly .industrialized countries. Pope Leo emphasized "the enormous fortunes of some few individuals and the utter poverty of the masses." But he rejected socialism as a remedy, and firna- ly upheld the right to private property. He also defended the right of labor to organize and entered a strong plea for new laws that would correct abuses in society. Structural Abuses Pope Pius XI, like Pope Leo, condemned the disparity of in- come and wealth between the rich few and the propertyless many. But he went beyond his predecessor in noting what might be called "structural abuses" in the economic system, such as stock speculation, finan- cial manipulation, excessive competition and its opposite, monopoly, and the corruption of the state by finance capitalism. In addition, he noted a corrup- tion of morals, the denial of jus- tice and charity, and a preval- ence of greed. Pope Pius XI repeated but somewhat modified Pope Leo's condemnation of socialism. He I !;i~:~i~ili if: ~ii~i:i:i 2 :;: SOCIAL ENCYCLICALS OF POPES LEO AND PIUS -- His Holiness Pope John's XXIII's 20,000-word encyclical "Mater et Magistra" commemorates the 7Oth anniversary of the publica- tion of Pope Leo XIII's great social encyclical "Rerum No- varum" (left) and the 3Oth anniversary of Pope Plus Xl's encyclical "Quadragesimo Anno," two great papal documents warned against the threat posed by Communism. Goes Step Farther While upholding the right of property, as did Pope Leo, Plus XI pointed out that ownership has a social character as well as an individual character. To both capital and labor he point- ed out their social obligations as well as their rights. He made more precise the concept of a living wage by spe- cifying that this be a tamily wage. He echoed Pope Leo's call for proper social legislation, but also called attention to the dangers of loading excessive burdens on- to the state. Calls for Reform Pope Plus XI's unique contri- dealing with the social order. The opening paragraphs of each are reproduced here as they appeared in the Vatican's official publication, Acta Apostolicae Sedis, in 1891 and 1932, respec- tively. Photos courtesy of Catholic University of America library, (N.C.W.C. NEWS SERVICE) [injustices and settle strikes de- The new encyclical of His ltrimental to the common good. Holiness Pope John XXIII was --Called for social insurance drawn up to commemorate an- niversaries of two major papal documents dealing with the so-I cial order. Here are main points l of the three: RERUM NOVARUM (On the Condition of the Working Clas- ses), issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891: --Proclaimed the priority of man and his family over the State. --Condemned not only Marxist Communism and socialism, but also monopoly capitalism and industrial slavery. Socialism was labeled a violation of man's natural right to own property. --Asserted that every worker has a right to a living wage. Right to Unionize --Held that werkers have a right to form unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to strike for just cause. ~Said that the State has a special duty to care for and protect the workers, and that the law should step in to right bution was to call for a struc- tural reform in society through the creation of intermediary economic bodies to regulate the economy in the interest of jus- the joint efforts of labor and management to increase produc- tivity and decrease costs in an industry. Or it could be more negative in scope, centering on the regulation of abuses. Here, for instance, bodies provisions so as to give effec- tive aid "not only in cases of ac- cident, but also in sickness, old age, and distress." QUADRAGESIMO ANNO (On Reconstructing the Social Or- der), issued by Pope Plus XI on May 15, 1931: --Upheld Rerum Novarum as "the Magna Charta upon wMch all Christian activity in the so- cial field ought to be based." --Reiterated that true social- ism is "utterly foreign to Chris- tian truth," as its concept of life is material rather than spiritual. --Condemned individualistic capitalism and unrestrained monopoly for crushing the mass of mankind with "hardships and difficulties." --Asserted that "the worker must be paid a wage sufficient to support him and his family." Working Mothers --Declared it "an intolerable abuse, and to be abolished at all cost, for mothers on account of the father's low wage to be forced to engage in gainful oc- cupation outside the home " --Fostered international co- operation: "Since the various nations largely depend on one another in economic matters and need one another's help, they should strive with a united purpose and effort to promote by wisely conceived pacts and institutions a prosperous and happy international cooperation in economic life." MATER ET MAGISTRA (Mother and Teacher), bv Pope John XXIII, dated May 1.5, 1961: --Drew a sharp distinction be- tween socialism and sociliza- tion, condemning the first and upholding the second. "So long as socialization confines its ac- tivity within the limits of the moral order it helps to promote truly personal char- acteristics:" --Declared that "every effort must be made" to provide that the rich accumulate only "a ,just share" of profits, and that representing labor and manage-l"an ample sufficiency be sup- ment could control destructivelplied to workingman." types of competition, instead oflin~-~Held that "fruitful and last- leaving such regulation to the " " peace is impossible if the government, differences between people's so- Primary Aspects cial and economic conditions The primary aspects of the are too great. great encyclical of Pope John XXIII are these: 1. He has put into focus, in terms of the problems of the nuclear age, the social princi- ples outlined by his predeces- sors. It is especially helpful to have a solemn reaffirmation of the teachings of Pope Plus XII, since these were often given in the form of addresses to various groups, in addition to the more solemn radio messages to the world, 2. This is a truly worldwide encyclical, dealing not only with the problems of labor and man- agement in the industrialized sector, but also with the eco- nomic difficulties of agriculture and the legitin~ate aspirations of developing nations. Allows for Diversity 3. The approach to the prob- lem of industrial economics re- fleets a high degree of economic sophistication and a philosophy that Americans will character- ize as liberal. The complexity of modern society is recognized. The encyclical allows for diverse forms of social organization and a high degree of government in- tervention for the sake of social Calls for Cooperation --Called for broad internation- al cooperation to help the under. developed nations overcome their "permanent state of pover- ty, of misery or of hunger" -- "perhaps the major problem" of today. --Asserted that in some coun- tries the people are forced "to undergo inhuman privations in order to increase the output of the national economy at a rate of accelet,ation which goes be- ond the limits permitted by ustice and humanity." --Saw man's God-given ge~nius for adapting nature's "inex- haustible resources" as the solu- tion to problems stemmin~ from current world population growth, rejected artificial birth control, ~sterilization and abortion as ira- moral. School Begins With 5th Grade CLEVELAND -- (NC) -- St. Helen parish will become the first school in recent history of this diocese to begin a school welfare. 4. Most timely is the call for aid to developing na- tions, not only as a duty of jus- tice and charity, but also as an essential safeguard of world Iwith the middle grades. The Rev. urgent James J. Moran. pastor, said the parish can't afford an eight grade school, so school will be- gin with the fifth grade. Father Moran, who has 350 public grade and high school stu- dents under catechism instruc- tion, said that when the school is completed, pupils for the first four grades will continue attend- ing public school and taking aft- er class religious instruc .tom