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July 14, 1961     The Observer
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July 14, 1961

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PAGE l0 T-tIE OBSERVEt FRIDAY, JULY 14, 1961 THEOLOGY FOR EVERY MAN ? No more complex domestic problem faces the government pointing out certain erroneous concepts of its meaning. Loyalty today than the proper determination o] the characteristics o]I does not mean, first of all, blind agreement with the policies of "subversive activities," and the suppressing of such activities ] the party in power, or blind and unquestioning submission to l within the context o] Constitutional guarantees. [ a 1 details of its direction. It is quite consistent with a spirit of The ]ollowing commentary was prepared at St. John's I true loyalty to call attention to the mistakes of legislators and Seminary, Brighton, Mass. It is reprinted 1rom the Boston [ to warn against potentially dangerous trends in executive pol- Pilot. ~ icy. Nor can loyalty be defined as merely passive acceptance of Q. What moral principles determine the right of state gov- ernments to make laws against subversive activities? A. We may set down as a fundamental principle that a just government has the right to demand loyalty of its citizens. Citi- zens who are loyal to their government have the right, on the other hand. to seek protection from the government for their personal and property rights. The concept of loyalty thus enters into the implicit contractual agreement between the govern- ment and its citizens that is demanded by the very nature of human society. To be loyal means to be faithful to one's coun- try and to follow out the principles according to which govern- mental action is directed. UP TO THIS POINT EVERYONE is in agreement, but there is considerable difference of opinion on how the principles are to be applied. Outward manifestations of loyalty, such as salut- ing the flag and promising under oath conformity to govern- mental policies can often conceal an interior spirit of rebellion that repudiates the principles from which true loyalty must proceed. On the other hand, a thoughtless person who would refuse to salute the flag, or one who would honestly regard an oath as injurious to God might be interiorly loyal even to the point of being willing to sacrifice his life for his country. We may approach the problem of loyalty firs t of all b~ Patronize Our Advertisers Ii i !i iiiiii ! i il !i !ii!!! ii! !iii ililiiiiiii: i i i!! }!i o I R l| KEYNOTER--Father John F. I G I/ Cronin, S.S assistant direc- | |[ tar of the Social Action de- I I |[ partment, NCWC, will deliver | |~ the keynote address August I N II 24 at the convention of t h e | |/ National Catholic Conference I A I/ for Interracial Justice in Ve- I |/ trait. The convention, to be | |/ held at the University of De- | |~ trait, will have as its theme, i i~ "The New Negro." An expert ! I/ in the social action f i e I d, | |~ Father Cronin is a former [ |[ professor of labor relations at I I/ the Catholic University of I I| America. Want That New Home!! YOU CAN -- THE MILES WAY THE BEST BUILD.IT.YOURSELF DEAL ANYWHERE No Money Down -- Low Monthly Payments Your Credit Is Good -- First Payment From 60 90 Day~ Can Include Materials for Foundation -- Plumbing-- Heating -- Wiring M'I P CtH 1 es u olnes Frank J. McBride Rockford, IlL 1348 6th Avenue WO 4-0053 SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE Mount St. Clare College Clinton, Iowa CATHOLIC COLLEGE FOR WOMEN Progressive new concepts in two-year college planning Highly geared foundation program for the degree seeker Well-rounded program for the two.year student Liberal Arts Home and Family Business Secretarial Teacher Preparation Medical Secretarial Health Services ideals that are authoritatively proposed, or adherence without criticism to the teachings of any given system of economies or politics. Again, it is not possible to define loyalty in terms of hatred for other nations or peoples, or contempt for systems of government that are in effect in other parts of the world. WHAT DOES LOYALTY MEAN in a positive way? It means first of all fidelity to one's Country when it is subject to attack by an enemy nation. Secondly it means fidelity to the basic principles on which one's own nation is established and which are destined to direct its national policies. To be loyal means to be able to distinguish intelligently between constructive op- position to the party in power when such opposition is clearly indicated and destructive opposition to the national interest with which governmental policies must in all circumstances be in conformity. Today our national interest is imperiled because of groups which are unreasonably favoring the interests of a foreign power which seeks international control. Our own nation is rightly aroused against this danger, which obviously needs to be guarded against. This very danger, however, leads to another danger which may be even more disastrous. It is possible that fear of Communism may lead the party in power to dictate public policies that are themselves in violation of fundamental American rights. Charges of disloyalty and Communistic sub- version may be directed not only towards .those who are truly hostile to American interests but also towards those who are truly loyal at heart and completely in line with the best in- terests of the American nation. In fighting subversive activities we must be careful not to open the way for the loss of the very rights which our nation is pledged to defend. IT IS INEVITABLE that there should be conflict between civil liberties and national security. It is important that each of these fundamental values be preserved; it does not make sense to make either the instrument by which the other will be maintained. Totalitarian government is the easy answer to the problem of national security. On the other hand, to endan- ger national security for the sake of preserving unrestricted liberty is to incite destruction of freedom in its very roots. In time of war the restrictions of civil liberties must be more extensive than during periods of comparative peace. It must be admitted that the universal disturbance that is known as World War II hay not ceased to exist with the official declara- tion of the end of hostilities. It has been well said that at the present time we are living in a sort of no man's land some- where between war and peace. We are going through an inter- national experience that is without precedent, and which makes the problems of loyalty and civil liberties harder than ever to solve. Those who are charged with the" responsibilities of na- tional governments are quick to make charges against individ- uals and groups that they find hard to keep under control. They find it hard to distinguish between loyal opposition and truly subversive agitation. WE CAN UNDERSTAND THIS ATTITUDE in those who must make the difficult decisions which determine the day-by- day progress of our nation against the forces which are bent on its destruction. We should be willing as individuals, and as groups within the nation, to make the sacrifice of civil liberties that will help our statesmen to solve problems on which they must take a definite stand. The strongest test of loyalty is will-i ingness to put the common good above personal and private gain. It is possibie to be loyal to our country even as we open our eyes to our national weakness and to the human failings and insufficiency of those who guide our national destinies We must be willing to make the personal sacrificies which our pub- lic officials honestly deem necessary for the preservation of our national integrity. While cherishing our ideals of personal freedom, we must be ready to obey and support our govern- ment when steps are being taken towards safeguarding the common good as it is conceived in the circumstances in which we actually live. Q. IS IT POSSIBLE TO ARRIVE AT A WQRKABLE DEFI- NITION OF DISLOYALTY? A. Disloyalty means allegiance to the enemies of our country. In the actually existing circumstances of our American society we may think of disloyalty from two points of view. First of all, disloyalty may be defined in terms of treason. Treason, in! turn, is defined in the Constitution of the United States as con-i slating only in levying war against the United States or in ad-I hering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. I Secondly, disloyalty can consist in subversive activit:~. Sub-] versive activity was defined in 1943 by the House Un-Ameri-I can Activities Committee as that which derives from conduct intentionally destructive or inimlcal to the government of the United States: that which seeks to undermine its institutions, or to distort its functions, or to Impede its projects, or to lessen its effects; the ultimate end being to overturn it all. Such (sub- versive) activity may be open and direct, as by effort to over- throw, or subtle and indirect, as by sabotage. l] THERE HA S BEEN A STRONG TRADITION of loyalty I throughout our national history. Those who came to this coun- try were attracted by the climate of freedom which it afforded. During our past history there has been little or no reason for wanting to overthrow the government. Only a few times, before our own age, has the issue of loyalty, as opposed to civil liber- ties, been seriously raised. Today, however, the problem has BRADBURY'S "The Store o] Fashions' Dry Goods Ready-to.Wear Children's Wear FITZGERALD DRUG STORE Prescription Specialists R. F. FITZGERALD 19874 PHONE 3415 105 W, MAIN ST. MORRISON. ILL. General Auto Service Towing Service Motorola Radio & TV Boats and Motors DIAL 2461~FULTON, ILL. PAUL CARLSON AGENCY INSURANCE -- REALTY Ph. 105 Eric *TOUR Insurance Polb~y is .4 Symbol ot Security" developed new dimensi6ns, with the uneasiness which has fol- lowed upon World War II and the development of new weap- ons for mass destruction. In our own country there has been increasing concern in recent years for national security. The 0 '~ problem has become further complicated by the 'c id war which has been carried on between this country and Commu- nistic nations. No one can deny that Communistic agents have worked their way into influential positions in the American government and in the institutions of American society. How to deal with this problem without endangering the civil liberties guaranteed by the Constitution must be the constant concern of every respon- sible public official. IN 1947 THE TRUMAN GOVERNMENT formulated a loyal- ty program which was designed to afford maximum protection against the infiltration of disloyal persons into the ranks of government employees, and at the same time to protect loyal employees of the government against unfounded accusations o~ disloyalty. The program enumerated, as grounds for suspect- ing a person's loyalty, sabotage and espionage; treason or sedi- tion, or the advocacy thereof; advocacy of revolution or vio- lence for the purpose of altering the constitutional form of our government; unauthorized disclosure of confidential documents, t~nder circumstances suggesting disloyalty; serving the inter- ests of another government in preference to the interests of theI United S~ates. Another reason for suspecting disloyalty, as proposed in the Truman program: membership in, or affiliation with, or sym- pathetic association with any foreign or domestic organization or association designated by the Attorney General as totalitar- ian, Fascist, Communistic or subversive. The doctrine of "guilt by association," it is claimed, can inflict grave injustice on in- dividuals. Nevertheless, it was felt by the majority of the Con- gress that the Presidential Loyalty program fell short of ade- quate protection of the national security. Hence, in 1950, the McCarran National Security Act was drawn up and was passed over the President's veto. The act incorporates and clarifies many of the provisions of the Truman program. In addition, it distinguishes between Communist-action groups and Commu- nist-front groups. Both types must be registered with the At- torney-General, and both must furnish lists of their officers and their financial supporters. Q. HOW CAN THE PROBLEM OF DISLOYALTY BE DEALT WITH IN CONFORMITY WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF THE MORAL LAW? A. Experience has shown that attempts to suppress spbver- siva groups have not been successful, and that they demand an excessively totalitarian intervention of the government in the private lives of its citizens. Many who have dealt with t h e problem say that the objective of the law should be to disclose the identity of subversive persons and groups rather than to suppress them. This program is based on the assumption that the g r e a t majority of the people are loyal, and that mere knowledge by the majority of the subversive tendencies of the minority will make their activity ineffective. The combination of extensive discovery of subversive activity, adequate legisla- tion for dealing with it and an informed and vigilant society will be more in keeping with American traditions than would be violent efforts to suppress subversive groups, i CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN not to brand people as subver-i siva or disloyal merely because they are poor risks in relation to national security. It is obviously necessary for the govern- ment to screen its employees and to dismiss those already em- ployed who do not give satisfaction. When a person is repected or dismissed by a federal agency as a security risk, however, it should not be necessary to conclude that he would be unde- sirable in every other position as a disloyal American. O~ Workshop on Parish Tithing, TUCSON, A r iz. -~ Bishop Francis J. Green of Tucson has announced a o n e - d a y priests' workshop on parish tithing to be held September 27. The workshop will feature explanations of t h e tithing plan and sample sermons for1 explaining such a program toI a parish. Priests of other dio-I ceses besides the Tucson dio-1 cese may attend. [ Bishop Green said there is al trend toward tithing in the United States. He cited a re- cent survey w h i c h sho wed Complete Banking and Trust Service First National Bank of Woodstock Illinois Member F.D.I.C. and Federal Reserve System that there are 289 tithing par- ishes in the country now and 1,258 pastors are planning to begin the system. Again, a distinction should be made between positions in- volving only routine work and those whose incumbents have access to confidential information. Thirdly, while the doctrine 0 ~ U' ~ " " " f g fit by a~soclahon should be used with great dlscr~mma- tion, it cannot be denied that a person's associates are signifi- cant in the establishing of his personal worth. It is only reason- able to question a person's loyalty when his associates are not- ably members of questionable groups. FINALLY, THOSE WHO ADMINISTER the security pro- gram should be themselves above reproach both in their per- sonal character and in their devotion to the interests of the nation. They must not be swayed by party politics. They must be e dowed wlth prudence and common sense. They must fol- low the rules indicated by law, but they must avoid narrowness and personal animosities in their interpretation of the law. It is not always easy to establish the boundary between civil liberties and subversive activity. We must be ready to admit that the preservation of freedom may amount to defeat rather than victory in a world in which national security is imperiled. We must recognize that treasonable activity is not a right but a crime against virtuous patriotism. We cannot continue to be free unless the nation remains secure. 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