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June 23, 1961     The Observer
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v v ons on By FATHER JOHN RYAN I WHERE AND WHEN WAS THE MASS FIRST CELE- bRATED IN THE UNITED STATES? Because of the scarcity of early records, and the incom- teteness of records that are available, it is difficult for ~cholars to determine with certainty j'ust when and where ~e first Mass was celebrated within the present U. S. ,~oundaries. According to the Rev. Gilbert J. Ga~raghan, ILJ the Masses presumably said in a chapel built on the vest coast of Florida for Ponce de Leon's missionaries in 1521 were the first in that state and the first in the United States. The first dated Masses in Florida, however, were said on Corpus Christi, June 20, 1549, by Domini- can Fathers Luis Cancer de Barbastro and Juan Garcia on the Tampa Bay coast. Other early Masses probably offered in the areas of states of the U.S. are: Ala- bama, 1540; Arizona, 1538: Colorado, ]541; Kansas, 1540: Nebraska, 1541; New Mexi- co, 1540; South Carolina, 1526; and Tennes- see, 1540. IT SE E M S INCONSISTENT THAT ARE INVITED TO ATTEND INQUIRY ".'LASSES IN OUR CHURCH, AND YET AT THE SAME :'IME WE ARE FORBIDDEN TO ATTEND LECTURES R TAKE PART IN THEIR CHURCHES. There is no inconsistency in the Catholic attitude. A atholic would violate Catholic principles by attending ~arvices in a Protestant church, whereas a Protestant :iolates no principle of his religion by attending doctrinal ~.ctures on Catholicism. Protestantism is essentially a religion based on private Idgrr~nt: a Protestant is logically a seeker after truth. view of the many doctrinal divisions among the sects, nd the many differen~ viewpoints of liberal thought, the )gical thinker in the outside churches can never be cer- ~in of his position. He must at least admit that the Cath- ie Church may be the one Church of Christ. Catholicism is essentially a religion based on a divine Lfallible teaching; a Catholic is logically a possessor of ~e truth. Why, therefore, should he seek for that which already possesses? His faith precludes all possibility doubt; it rests on the authority of God. He can never mit that other churches, liberal or orthodox, may pos- hly be right. WHEN WAS THE BLESSED VIRGIN M A D E THE :ATRONESS OF THE UNITED STATES? ~In 1946 was observed the 100th anniversary of the dedi- J~tion of the United States to Mary under the title of her nmaculate Conception. On May 13, 1846, the Bishops ! this country, gathering in the Sixth Provincial Council of altimore, solemnly decreed that "the Blessed Virgin, received without stain of sin, be elected Patroness of e United States of America." HOW DO THE TEACHINGS OF THE GREEK ORTHO- OX CHURCH DIFFER FROM THOSE OF THE CATHO- [C CHURCH? This religious body, more properly termed the Orthodox astern Church, resulted from the rift with the Holy See arted in 1054 by the Patriarchates of Constantinople, lexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. Though the Orders and sacraments of the Eastern Ortho- )x Church are valid, the church is held as schismatic the Catholic Church, for it rejects the supreme author- of the Roman Pontiff. Theologians of the Eastern Or- Church hold many points of doctrine in opposi- ~n to the teachings of the Catholic Church, but the great ~dy of the Orthodox Christians hold virtually all the ba- c tenets of Christianity in common with Catholics. Some fferences of doctrine supported by the Orthodox Church ]thorities as a whole are the following: They reject the Pope's supreme authority as well as 'e authority of the Church Councils that followed the first ,ven Ecumenical Councils; teach that Our Lady was purl- ed from sin at the Annunciation not preserved immacu- F . ' . . rte from the hrst moment of her conceptmn m her moth- 's womb; hold a confused teaching regarding purgatory, :ough the people pray for the dead. j The Orthodox Eastern Church must not be confused ith the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, which ioups are in communion with the Holy See, recognizing fe authority of the Pope. WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE ST. CHRISTOPHER EDAL? ~t. Christopher, patron of travelers, lived in the third ntury. He decided he could serve God best by devoting s enormous physical strength to Him. This he did by ~rrying travelers across a swift and dangerous river in rich many people had drowned. Legend says the Christ aild apppeared to Christopher and was borne across the ~'rent by him. for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is necessary to sign your name unless you wish'a per- reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not use unsigned questions. The Right Reverend Monsignor Francis J. Con- run died last Sunday after a long period of con- fining illness. He had served God and His Church as a faithful priest for 37 years. Ordained to the priesthood in 1924, Monsignor Conron dedicated a great share of his priestly life to administrative work for the Rockford diocese as he served in the capacity of secretary a n d chancellor of the diocese for m o r e than eleven years. In this capacity he became a well-known figure to all the priests of the diocese who grew to admire his efficiency in the performance of his assigned tasks. The recognition of his work ex- tended beyond the diocese when the Holy Father bestowed upon him the special honor of P a p a 1 Chamberlain and, later, that of Domestic Prelate. In both the early and later years of his priest- hood, Monsignor Conron gave his efforts to parish work. The later years of his life were spent as pastor of St. Mary parish, Maple Park. Our sin- cere condolences are extended to the parishioners of the Maple Park parish who have lost their be- loved pastor. The death of a priest should serve as a remin- der Of the great dignity which is g i v e n to men when they are called to share the priesthood of Jesus Christ. The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass of- fered and the ministrations of the priest in the Sacrament of Penance are the chief acts of medi- ation for tl~e people of God. This is the daily life of the priest. At the same t~me, the p r ie s t, like all men, is subject to the call of d e a t h. In Io THIS ME ? this is the frailty of his human nature exempli- fied. Each passing year brings a number of newly- ordained priests to the front ranks of the church to take their places in the work of restoring all things to Christ; at the same time each year sees the passing of older members of the clergy to their eternal reward. Sometimes the years be- tween are very few. For Monsignor Conron they were but thirty seven. May his soul rest in peace! The present p 1 a n s for all-out, aid to L a t i n America, with particular emphasis on military aid, are running into trouble on the Senate floor. The plans call for about 33% of the total of 1.9 billion in military aid to go to Latin American countries. This proposal seems to reflect a kind Of admis- sion that the coming fray will be between Sino- Russian equipped Cuba and U. S. equipped La- tin American republics. N o w that Communism has a firm foothold in this hemisphere the next outward breaks are likely to c o m e in L a t i n America. However, there are planners who still feel that our efforts in aid should be concentrated on help- ing correct the social ills that provide the fertile ground for revolt and the incursion of Commu- nism. One of the biggest problems in Latin American countries is the great diversity between the very wealthy and the very poor; there are few in the so-called middle class. Another problem crying for solution is land tistribution. Perhaps the greatest problem f a c i n g Latin Americans is the need for increased productivity. The population increase has been 2.7 percent an- nually, but the rise of income per inhabitant is barely one percent. The problem of aid seems to trim down to the short-term or the long-term solution. Arming the Latin American nations to the teeth may be a good defense, but who knows whether or not the same arms and ammunition might not be turned against us? In fact many Latin American countries are al- ready spending 25 percent of their national in- come on armaments. The long-term solution is the working out of the tragic social inequalities which have been al- lowed to develop. Can these social problems be worked out within the democratic system and by democratic gradual means? T h i s is the gamble that must be taken on the long-term solution. The recent tour of Ambassador Stevenson has revealed many sore spots in U. S.-Latin Ameri- can relations. It is becoming increasingly c 1 e a r that since Cuba entered the Co/nmunist b 1 o c without the firing of a shot from the outside or even the h i n t of a foreign invasion, it is v e r y possible for an influential group of people to sell the idea within a nation that social revolution is the only solution to their problems. That is the trend in Latin America. It would seem then, that our efforts to solve the Latin American problem should be directed to solving the long-existing social problems rather than in arming them with the means of revolu- tion. / SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM His youthful ap?~e~rance belies a. mature mind and a keenness o~ judgment that would do credit to a man twice his a2e. He is out of Notre Dame perhaps about e~ht years. He holds a responsi- ble position with one of the big- gest airplane industries in the country. His job is to deal with about twelve different labor un- ions of widely varying type. This responsibility necessitates negotiation of collective bar- ~i!!!i!i~:i:i:~ii!i~i:i:i:~::~z!i~i!i~~ g a i n i n g con- ~~ii!~!iiiii!il~:! tracts and the i li!i~:: day by day grind of seeing that the contract is effectively and efficiently executed. In a recent conversation my young f r i e n d casually remarked, "Lord deliv- er me from a weak union." This succinct comment on his daily work reflects the thinking of a new generation of manag- erial experts. Gone is the anti- quated and nostalgic desire to dominate the relationship be- tween the employer and the or- ganization of the workers. The constant gripe about the "mon- opoly power of labor" is not m evidence. The managerial dream of a company controlled work- ers' union is spurned for the il- lusion that it always was. Problem Resolved Acknowledged and welcomed is the concept that there are two equally important, but distinct elements constituting the rela- tionship that must exist between the employer and the employed. The legal and moral recognition of union organization and union security is taken for granted. The problem of "who has the right to manage what" is resolv- ed by the establishment of a mutually agreed upon authentic authority. That authority is the collective bargaining contract it- self. The rights and obligations of each party are spelled out in terms as explicit as possible. The daily execution of that con- tract is controlled by a sane and FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. sensible grievance procedure. When grievances reach a stage of stalemate, the contract calls for arbitration as the final judge. Weak Union is Detriment But why should any man of management, young or old, deal- ing with a diversity of union leaders, ask to be liberated from a weak union and pray for the opportunity to do business with a strong union? For the simple reason that experience has taught him that a strong union normally is a responsible union. It is an efficiently run union. It is a reasonably conducted union. A weak union, on the other hand, is a detriment to sound and stable relationships. To hide its weaknesses, the union leader oftener than not feels compelled to raise superficial issues cans- hag friction with management in a vain effort to put on a front of strength. The leadership is plagued either by ignorance or inexperience. Otherwise t h e workers' organization would not be weak. Last Resort Only Paradoxically, the specific cir- cumstances which evoked the re- mark of my young friend, "Lord, deliver me from a weak union," was on the issue of arbi- tration. One of the unions with which he had dealings set it down as a policy to call abrupt- ly for arbitration in one griev- ance case after another. This in itself is a symptom of a weak union. The experienced labor leader recognizes arbitration for what it is and what it is meant to be. It is the last resort, the last step before strike action is consider- ed. The primary principle in pro- cessing grievances is that the dispute or problem be settled as quickly as possible at the lowest level of sugervision. Only when the normal routine steps of the grievance procedure fail to bring on a solution does the experienc- ed union official call for arbitra- tion. Cause for Unrest Arbitration is costly. It is, in a sense, wastef'ul of time and rim energy. Too often 'it may bring a dispute to an end, but it doesn't necessarily remove the grievance. The disappointment of defeat may still rankle in the mind of the unsuccessful partici- pant in the arbitration. A mut- ually agreeable solution, through the good will and good faith of the parties themselves, brings more satisfactory feeling of accomplishment. In the case under discussion, the union was getting a licking, some times three or four days a week, and rightly so. Competent arbitrators of national status were called in to sit in judgment on points of grievance that could have been and should have been resolved at the level of a plant foreman. In a word, the regular and routine grievance processes were being hastily spurned by the union officials with the hope of a more favorable judgment by an outside agent. This atti- tude and approach is in itself a symptom of a weak union. A strong and responsible union does not become so involved so often. Needs Only' Decent Policy By the same token, a company whose industrial policy looks with favor upon a weak union should likewise be called a weak company. Economically and fi- 'nancially it may'be a giant. In terms of human relations and harmonious employer - employe developments, it is still a pig- my. It desires to dominate where co-operation is called for. A strong company doesn't have to play Papa to a weak union. All it needs is a decent policy of industrial relations. My young friend represents the typical thinking of a new and rising generation of manage- ment officials. He expressed true wisdom in his practical prayer--- "Lord, deliver me from a weak union." A really high degree of profi- ciency in any particular subject invariably leads to atrophy in other directions. R. H. Benson iReferring to what many call a spiritual revival as one it he signs of the times, Father John E. Burkhart, speak- to the students of the University of Southern Colifor- m, gave as his judgment that much of the present re- upsurge was so much "spiritual aspirin." He said, doesn't cost much, doesn't do much, won't hurt much, isn't worth much." Such aspirin tablet Christianity isn't worth much. Patting ourselves on the back going to get us into heaven. --Banner, from The Liguorian is easy enough to tell the poor to accept their poverty God's will when you yourself have warm clothes and of food and medical care and a roof over your head no worry about the rent. But if you want them to be- ve you, try to share some of their poverty and see if can accept it as God's will yourself! ~Thomas Merton in Seeds of Contemplation XXVi, No. 25 June 23, 1961 MOST REVEREND LORAS T. LANE Publisher REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Managing Editor REVEREND WILLIAM t JOFFE.~- -- Asst Managing Editor UORIE G~LLAGHER Women% Page Editor BERT WILLEMS New~ Editor JLAH O'MEARA . Business BERT ~ STARR Advertising N BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer, printed weekly ot 413 Pleasant Street Beloit Wi~ is th~ official newspape, r o; the Cathotc Diocese of Rockford. Second class postage pard at Beloit Wisconsin. Subscriptions $4.00 per year prepaid in the Unltoa Etotoe ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED 1"O THE 1260 NORTH CHURCH $TREE1 ROCKFORD ILLINOIS. $TMASTER: please send form 3579 to the BSERVER, 1260 No~B Strut, Ib~kford, Uli~l. REAPINGS AT RANDOM O IIIJ el ISm ei By GERARD E. SHERRY They're at it again. Soon after last week's Diocesan edi- tion had reached the homes, there were several telephone calls and several letters. And they all had the same mes- sage: "I told you Liberals so. You. have the Apostolic Delegate after you because you're courting the secular- ists." Strange isn't it? Anytime a Bishop or a leading Church- man warns Catholics against excesses, his words, com- pletely out of text, are applied by some to the philosophies of their opponents. Archbishop Vagnozzi, Apostolic Delegate to the United States, recently warned Cath~ olic intellectuals against courting secular- ism in their attempts to bridge the gap between the Church and the world. There was nothing unusual about this. It's all been said before. Though, perhaps, not as firmly and as eloquently. Not Condemnation But why tag the '~Liberal" label to Cath- olic intellectuals? Some of them are no doubt liberal, and some are no doubt con- servative in their philosophy What the critics didn't em- phasize was that the Delegate was not condemning Catho- lic intellectuals. He made the point that "as the protagon- ists of the new position should not summarily be accused of heresy, neither should they insist in presenting as defin- itive truth . . . theories and opinions which can deceive the definite stamp of truthfulness only from the magis- terium of the Church. "The Sacred Books of the Bible are too basically funda- mental . . . to be left to the individual and private inter- pretation of even a large number of scholars." Obviously, no one can disagree with this. And it must ~ot be taken a~ a condemnation of the activiti~ oI ~atho- :::lii > ~!i!!"~ii! p~ ml lic intellectuals. There are silly men in intellectual circles as there are in politics, science and every other field of activity. Their actions sometimes contradict their alleged competence. They. should be cautioned against excesses which impair the stand and traditional thought of the, Church. Neither Committed Nor Rejected The discussion on the progress of intellectualism or scholarship in Catholic life has been going on for many years. Jesuit Father Gustave Weigel, S.J presented a paper at the annual meeting of the Catholic Commission on In- tellectual and Cultural Affairs several years ago. In it he made some rather interesting observations. I think the following quote is very pertinent: "The intellectual life is neither committed to Christian- ity nor does it antecedently reject it. Th~ it is not com- mitted to Christianity is clear enough from history. Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, Moses, Maimonides, Ibn Sina and Einstein were not Christians but no one would deny that they were scholars. That the Christian can be a scholar is just as plain. Abelard, Aquinas, Copernicus, Galileo, Eras- mus, Newton and Newman were Christians and no one would deny that they were creative intellectuals. Scholarship Independent "This very simple truth is often ignored by Catholic apologetes. Some give the impression that Christian faith iflclines to make every Christian an intellectual; that schol- arship is an inevitable byproduct of Christian commit- ment: "To put it quite simply, faith by its own inner essence does not produce scholars. On the other hand it does not exclude them from its community. The call to scholarship is independent of the call to faith. However, if the Chris- tian is a scholar, his intellectual life will be in function of his faith" urc or O ,elec Father Weigel's point is not at variance with the point made by the Apostolic Delegate. Indeed, the Pope's rep- resentative to the United States was simply Saying by all means let'S continue the search for knowledge, but let's not compromise on fundamentals. He carried this over on the other two subjects that he discussed in his speech in relation to the Liturgy and Church Art. Tremendous Freedom It has nothing to do with liberal or conservative stands in the Church. Yet, so deep is the emotional response from some Catholics that they want to read their oppon- ents out of the Church on the slightest pretext. Every- thug wrong with the Church is attributed either to the Liberal or the Conservative Catholic. Yet, these labels have no real connection with the issfles exposed by the Apostolic Delegate. There is a tremendous freedom given the intellectual mind by the Church, and the Delegate was by no means suggesting that it be stifled. As one of the authentic teach- ers he was merely advising against compromise which would be a repudiation of Catholic doctrine. Every Bishop has the right and duty to do this if he feels that such dangers are present. Thomas F. O'Dea of the University of Utah seemed to sum the hole thing up when he said, "The role of the Cath- olic intellectual in America must, in part, be 'prophetic' ~endlessly championing points of view which are counter to those prevailing in his society. Divorce is now part of the American way of life; euthanasia may become so. The Catholic intellect, rightly used in the secular order, not only can profit by the positive results of the best mod- ern thinking but can also serve to correct some of its unfortunate elements, but only on condition that Catholic thinkers be regarded as collaborators and not as deadly 4~e.n~ie:;." ~