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May 18, 1961     The Observer
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: - . . iS on ~%%%%%%%%%%~ D By FATHER JOHN RYAN IF A SMALL BOY. PLAYING BASEBALL. BREAKS A WINDOW IN A NEIGHBOR'S HOUSE. MAY THAT NEIGHBOR DEMAND THAT THE BOY'S FATHER PAY THE BILL FOR THE REPAIR OF THE DAMAGE? If the boy has not reached the age of reason and his father, through neglect of supervision, was responsible for the destructive activity of his son, the father is bound in conscience to make good the damage. Such would be the case if the father knew that the boy was playing too close to the house and did nothing about it. If. however, the damage was done without any culpable neglect on the part of the father, there is no obligation on him to pay for the window. If the son has attained the use of rea- son. he himself is a responsible person, and so. if the damage was due to his own deliberate carelessness, he is bound to make up for it. If he has no funds at pre- sent. he is bound to ear~ some money for this purpose. Even if~he father was guilty of the failure to warn his son about being careful of the property of others, the father would not be bound to make restitution. However, if the civil law obliges a careless parent to make reparation for the damage by his son, the father is bound in conscience to pay the debt. WHAT BINDING FORCE HAS THE PLEDGE OF.THE LEGION OF DECENCY? This pledge is at least a promise, and it is a general principle that a promise, of itself, binds venially, from the virtue of [idelity. However. by reason of the matter promised, the fulfillment of this pledge may be a grave obligation, binding under pain o[ mortal sin. A person to whom attendance at an objectionable picture would be a grave occasion of sin would ordinarily sm mortally by atter/ding such a picture. Furthermore, even apart from the danger to the individual himself, one who would scandalize others by going to see a bad picture would fail seriously against the virtue of charity. This is an im- portant point to remember, particularly in relation to the pictures put in Class B-objectionable in part. A person might be able to see one of these pictures without grave spiritual danger to himself: but if his attendance would encourage others to attend, to whom such a picture would be a serious danger, he would ordinarily be guilty of a grave sin of scandal. 4r ~r -k IS IT POSSIBLE TO GO DIRECTLY TO HEAVEN AFTER DEATH OR MUST EVERYONE SPEND A PER- IOD OF TIME IN PURGATORY. The souls of those who die in the state of grace and have expiated the punishment due to sm are instantly admit- ted to heaven after, death. The body, of course, is not re. united with the soul until the General Judgment. #r 4r IS IT TRUE THAT A BOY BORN OUT OF WEDLOCK IS PREVENTED FROM BECOMING PRIEST? The Church has established an irregularity to advance- ment to the clerical state for one in this situation. The case can be referred to the bishop of the diocese. The bishop may judge that the boy gives so great promise of becoming a worthy priest that he might decide that there is sufficient reason to seek a dispensation from the ir- regularity from the Holy See . WHO WERE THE DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH? Doctor of the Church was a title conferred on the great teachers and scholars of theology in the Middle Ages. A few of the principal Doctors of the Church are St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Anselm, and St. Bonaventure. HOW MANY OF CHRIST'S MIRACLES ARE HISTOR- ICALLY RECORDED IN THE GOSPEL ? About forty of our Lord's miracles are mentioned in the Gospels. St. John, however, tells us that Jesus did many marvelous things that are not recorded in the books. The Gospels report that Jesus performed at least fifteen miraculous cures, exorcised at least seven people who were possessed by the devil, brot~ght three people back from the dead and miraculously counteracted the forces of nature on ten occasions. WHAT IS A SECULAR PRIEST? This is a name sometimes given to parish priests who do not belong to religious orders. The parish priests usual- ly are called diocesan clergy, and this is the preferred name. #t 4r 4r Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a per- Bona] reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. Nor do we set up altars, to sacrifice to the martyrs, but to God alone, God of the martyrs and our God. In this sacrifice all the men of God, who in confession of their allegiance o Him have overcome the world, are named in due place and order, but are not invoked by the sacrific- ing priest. The reason is, because he is GOd's priest, not theirs, although it is in their memorial shrine that he is the Body of Christ, which is not offered to them because it is what they themselves are. --St. Augustine Let the souls of Christians be like altars on each one of which a different phase of the sacrifice, offered by the High Priest comes to life again, as it were: pains and tears ~which wipe away and expiate sin; supplication to God which pierces heaven; dedication and even immolation of oneself made promptly, generously and earnestly; and finally, that intimate union by which we commit ourselves and all we have to God, in Whom we find our reset. --Pope Pins XII For who is more a priest of the most high God than our Lord Jesus Christ, Who offered a sacrifice to God the Father, and offered that very same thing that Melehise- , dech had offered, that is bread and wine, to wit, his Body and Blood? --St. Cyprian: Letters Vat. XXVI, No. 20 May 19. 1961 I"HE MOST REVEREND LORAS T. LANE. ~' Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL ;.Managing Editor ~THE REVEREND WILLIAML JOFFE Asst. Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women's Page Editor ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Business ROBERT J. STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLASI -.--~ Circulation The Observe.r/ printed weekly at 413, Pleasant Street. Beloit, Wis- onsln is the official newspaper of the Catholic Diocese of Rockford Second class postage paid at Beloit Wisconsin. Subscriptions $4.00 pet year prepaid in the United States ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER; 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREET. ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS. POSTMASTER: please send form 3579 to the OI~SlRYER, 1260 North Street, Rockford; Ulhmhk VS. The temptation to "dopestering" never dies and continues to claim many victims. One of the latest evidences is in a May 23 LOOK article: "The Bishops Vs. Kennedy", written by Fletcher Knebel of the Look Washington Bureau. Deliberate Campaign In this article the author does a flash-back over recent years to devlop his thesis that the members of the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Amer- ica thave s'et a deliberate campaign to oppose the election and the success after election of Presi- dent Kennedy. The article is sensational in that it has off-the record quotes from members of the Kennedy team on reaction to events as outlined. Domination of the Church One might take the same items and develop the theme that the presefit trends certainly sound the death-knoll to the old cry that a Catholic as president would be under the complete domination of the Church. In the documentation of his thesis, Mr. Knebel begins early in 1959 with the Kennedy interview published in LOOK and gives his views on the primacy of the oath to uphold the Constitution along with views on aid to education and repre- sentation at the Vatican. Mr. Knebel alleges that the stir in the Catholic Press which "reflects the views of the hierarchy" was a storm of protest. We recall vividly that many Catholic papers (in- cluding the OBSERVER) were not terribly dis- turbed by the Kennedy interview at that time. Bishops' Birth Control Statement The second stage of the Kennedy persecution the Bishops, he alleges, was the timing of the II ii I i NIGHT SCHOOL REAPINGS AT RANDOM inal By GERARD E. SHERRY The recent publicity concerning the possible beatifica- tion cause of John Henry Newman, the great English Cardinal of the 19th century recalls to mind one little- understood aspect of Newman's career. After very difficult religious trials and experiences, Newman came to realize and held this as a central fact of his life. that he could come into personal contact with the One whom he loved and served with all his heart, Jesus Christ, only in, with, and through the Church. He knew that within the Church could be found the Divine strength which would make this his double loyalty and love--his loyalty to God and his loyalty to his time, his wisdom able to save his world. And with love of God and his love of the men of his time--he ardently desired to b~ing his world to the Church and the Church to the world. And yet, we know from his life that he failed. Reason For Failure His keenest disappointment lay in the realization that he had not been able to establish the rapprochement between the Chorch he loved and the men he loved. We must ask ourselves why did Cardinal Newman fail? The answer can be found in his Church and in his world. Let us look first at his world. The world of the 19th century can best be characterized as adolescent. Scientific knowledge was making strides of great length, unleashing new powers and new energies. The scholarly world was almost dizzy with the discoveries of history and the liberations of philosophy. The politicaI world was aglow with the fond hopes unleashed by the Revolution. In those days you didn't smirk when you said, "brave new world." In those days you thrilled as you heard the German poet Heinrich say, "Fall on your knees; they are carrying the Sacramedts to a dying God." ":~::~ :~ i~ Bishops' Statement on Birth Control in Novem- ber 1959, To put that historic document in its prop- er setting one must recall the Draper report to the administration which recommended the use of public funds for the dissemination of birth con- trol propaganda and material. At that time the ad- ministration declared that this was not a matter for federal government involvement. At the same time there was a dramatic campaign on the "popu- lation explosion." The statement of the American Bishops on Birth Control was a re-affirmation of the Catholic,stand on this moral issue. It was time- ]y in that the campaign to sway people's emotions was getting stronger. The Bishops' had a right and duty to speak out on this issue. That it was timed to "embarrass candidate Kennedy" is a far-fetched accusation. The 1959 statement on Birth Control had no ulterior motivation. It was timely and necessary. It did not present anything new or start- ling that either friend or foe of Catholicism did not already know. Federal Education Aid The third incident of the alleged "shriving" of President Kennedy by the hierarchy is the matter of the controversy on federal aid to education. The view held by most of the members of the hierarchy is that if there is to be federal aid it should in- clude private schools as a matter of justice. Any- thing else amounts to discrimination. One would think that the American Bishops had spoken out on this issue for the first time. As a matter of record this issue has been in the mill for a long time. The views of the Bishops as well as those of President Kennedy have adjusted to the exigencies of the times, to state that the Bishops are putting pressure on Kennedy is at- tributing motives which are difficult to prove. Everyone knows that it would be political suicide for President Kennedy to come out in favor of federal aid to private schools. They should like- wise admit that it would be a species of cowardice for American Catholics--hierarchy or lay--to con- ceal their views on matters they consider elements of justice--because the President happens to be a Catholic.The current discussions on federal aid to education including private schools is an outwork- ing of the processes of democracy which it seems some would like to see supressed for the sake of harmony--it is the old theory of peace at any price. Fallacy in Logic As a seasoned politician, President Kennedy must expect opposition. He has had it from the other side of the aisle. Rather than be embarrassed by it, he might rather enjoy the Tray. In general we think the LOOK article to be a series of facts--uncontestable facts--but the con- clusions drawn from these facts are unwarranted. It is an old fallacy in logic. This month marks the 70th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical "Rerum Novarum," on the :ondition of the working classes, and the 30th anniversary of Pope Plus XI's encyclical "Quad- ragesimo Anno," on reconstruction of the social order. An article, appearing on page three of this week's OBSERVER analyzes the impact of these encyclicals on the U. S. labor movement and on labor legislation. We wholeheartedly suggest that you read it carefully and with understanding. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM i For a while there seemed to be a lull in the juvenile prac- tice of inviting Communists or pro-Communist guest speakers to college campuses. A spokes- man for the city colleges of New York City recently an- nounced that the ban which has prevailed for the past few years would be lifted. Yale en- tertained two fellows who had been convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to answer the questions of a Congression- al committee. The trend is on again, it seems. The specious defense of col- lege administrators for allow- ing such char- acters to ap- pear on the campus reveals a juvenile type of logic. Aca- demic freedom demands it. If young Ameri- cans of college age are depriv- ed of hearing the slanted views of Communists and Com- munist sympathizers, t h e i r development will be dwarfed. They must be given this oppor- tunity to listen to biased, par- tisan un-Americanism or the principle of freedom of expres- sion and the freedom to listen iS violated. This is pedagogic balderdash. What Can Be Gained.* What beneficial truth can a Communist or a Communist sympathizer tell an audience of American college students that a competent, patriotic, non- Communist guest speaker could not tell them? What is the subject matter that is of such vital importance to the educa- tional growth of the modern col- lege student that demands Com- munist or pro-Communist pre- sentation of it? Is it civil rights? The Fifth Amendment? Is it the proper function of a congress- tonal committee? Just what sub- ject is there of current or his- torical interest that demands a Communist or a Communist on FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S.J. mpus sympathizer on the campus of an American college? Do the college administrators who are responsible for the ap- proval or the condoning of such meetings know that we are en- gaged in a life and death strug- gle with the Soviet Union? If so, how can they justify offer- ing opportunity to such speak- ers to influence the minds of American youth? If not, what are their credentials for main- taining their administrative posts in an American college? Symbol of Enemy In the present state of inter- national relations, any man whose sympathies in any way lean toward the Soviet Union does not speak merely as an individual. He is a symbol of a mentality and a reality against which the Western world is to- day compelled to struggle. For- mally or informally, explicitly or implicitly, he is allied with our enemy. In keeping with our traditions of freedom of speech, such a one has a "civil right to express his opinions publicly if he can find an audience and a platform from which to spew forth his unhealthy sentiments. No one certainly has an obligation un- der the plea of academic free- dom or any other spurious title to invite him to exploit the im- maturity" of American youth. Common sense tells us that the "host" is the responsible party and guilty of imprudent judg- ment and a callous considera- tion of the vital interests of the United States of America. Reaction to Campaign This trend or the revival of this type of scandal may be a reaction to the campus cam- paign of Sen. Barry Goldwater -and others in the interest of con- servatism. There is no compari- son, of course, in the two move- ments. Th6re is no Conserva- tive International or even a Conservative American party with which the United States of America is at war. There are many who disagree with much of the philosophy and many of the assumptions of Sen. Gold- water and his stipporters. The conservatives have a right, nevertheless, to speak openly at any place and any time they can get a hearing. They are not tainted with any alliance of any kind with a national enemy. They. are free-born American citizens and are intent upon keeping America free accord- ing to their own concept of free- dom. The conservatives have a role to play in American life which should be recognized and acknowledged. They are needed if for no other reason than to curb and check the excesses to which the enthusiasm of the ex- treme liberal might be incliried to draw the nation. In Disagreement Any current administration, Republican or Democratic, ex- ercising the tremendous power that it does should have a loyal opposition in the public arena. Personally, .I find myself in disagreement with my conser- vative friends on a number of points. Specifically, they con- stantly invoke the f a 1 1 a c y, "they're w r o n g, therefore, we're right." Merely denounc-- ing "liberals." without the slightest attempt to make pro- per distinctions as to the kind of liberal they are berating is neither fair nor factual. It in.nO way proves that the conserva- tives are "right." Their posi- tion is weakened further when they offer no Satisfactory al- ternatives to the policies and practices of their opponents. When the conservatives, as Sen. Goldwater does in his book. "The Conscience of a Conservative," assume that they and they alone possess a phi- losophy that is based on the dignity of man. rooted in the na- tural law and thereby blessed by God while all those of liberal viewpoint are be. reft of such blessings, they are enunciating unintelligible nonsense. It should come as a surprise to the fifteen American Bishops who are on public record as op- posed to the right-to-work laws when they discover that all this time they have been espousing a cause that is contrary to the natural law. allen ur, Fascinated with itself, delightedly playing with new powers, rompingly revolting against all authority, the 19th century found it impossible to even consider the Church, let alone to listen to Her. On the other hand, within the Church Cardinal Newman met rejection, sus- picion, and even contempt. Suffering from a lethargy which had its roots in the faih~re of the so-called medieval synthesis: suffering from an ennui caused by carrying the burden of some many centuries of custom: weakened by the strenuous exertions of the counter-Reform, Holy Mother Church in the ~9th century was like a tired old lady. Vitality Lacking Everyone who raised a voice, asking the Church to coi~ne to this world, was considered either a traitor, will- ing to sell the City to the enemy, or an ignorant person who could not judge properly the values that were at stake. The Church in Newman's time had lost the nerve, the vitality, which had led to great conquests in the past. No room for a Paul in that Church, who was willing to throw aside the whole Mosaic law. No room in this Church for the gambling spirit of a Francis of Assist. Had a man stripped himself naked in the market place, the 19th century Church would have not only considered him un-Christi~n, but quite out of keeping with propriety. So Cardinal Newman failed. Our task is similar to Cardinal Newman's: it is to pick up where he left off; to bring the Church to our world. Like Cardinal Newman, we are devoted sons and daugh- ters of the Church. Like Cardinal Newman, we know that within the Church we have the wisdom of God and the strength of God. Like Cardinal Newman, we love the men of our time. Like Cardinal Newman, we have an ardent desire to establish a living, vital link between the Church and our world. World More Mature What are our chances? Must we fight those two enemies -the enemms within the world and the enernie~ within the Church, Personally, I think that the 20th century is quite different from the 19th. If the 19th century could be called adolescent, the 20th century has achieved a certain maturity. At least, the reckless self-hypnosis of the 19th century has been killed. Two world wars, a major, depression, the world divided into two hostile camps, the horrors of Hiroshima, have led men to suspect science. The degeneratio~ and com- plete corruption of democracy-into the so-called People's Republic behind the Iron and Bamboo Curtains have led men to a more sober estimation of liberty;~ have let them see more clearly the distinction between liberty and license. The modern ~vorld is not hypnotized by man, but has rediscovered the sense of Original Sin and is willing to look to God--if God can be made visible; if God's chil- dren can speak its language. Best Illustration What about the Church? Do we still find lethargy, cow- ardice, ennui, respectability? There are indications that some of these vices are still present. There are still .men within the Church who are fascinated by the past be- cause they are scared to death of the present and don't dare think of the future. There are men whose faith is not up.to the hazards of going out to people. There are men who must cower, locked in an imaginary cloister, muttering and repeating the fetish-like slogans and sym- bols of the past, endlessly building straw men which are so easily destroyed. There are men who look out at the advances made by unruly human reason and refuse to recognize that new questions have been asked. They answer the old questions with the old answers, in- stead of accepting the new questions, incorporating them as St. Thomas did into the Summa and bringing out of the old, new things. The spirit of lethargy, of ennuL and concentration of the past, I think, is best illustrated in one of the greatest weaknesSes--our complete lack of fruitful communication with our ~eparated brethren. j,