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By Father John Ryan RECENTLY THE QUESTION CAME UP; WHY THERE HAVE NEVER BEEN ANY OUTSTANDING CATHO- LIC SCIENTISTS. WOULD YOU PLEASE LIST IN YOUR COLUMN, THOSE CATHOLIC SCIENTISTS WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO OUR CIVILIZATION, NOT NECESSARILY IN THE 20TH CENTURY, AND ALSO TELL WHAT THEY ARE NOTED FOR. This is a partial list taken from the National Catholic Almanac. Ampere, Andre. Marie (1775-1836) --- The practical unit of electrical current is named after him; founded science of elec- tro-dynamics. Bacon, Roger (1214-1294) --- Francis- can. Is called the Father of Experimental Science. "Opus Minus," "Opus Majus" and "Tertium" are the most important of his more than 80 works. He writes or' opti~ al and astronomical laws now generally ac. cepted, discusses the possibility of inven- tion of the steamship, balloon, airplane, microscope and telescope, explains the composition and effects of gun- powder, and predicts railways and the use of electricity, Becquerel, Antoine Ccsar (]788-1878) -- French phyi- eist, who invented the constant cell, a differential gal- vanometer, and an electric ~ermometer. Becquerel, Antoine Henri (1852-1908) -- Son of An- toine Cesar. The founder of radio-activity; discoverer of "Becquerel's Rays." Braille, Louis (1809-1852) -- Blind educator of the blind, invented the Braille system (used today in revised form). Cardan, Girolamo (1501-1576) -- Physician and mathe- matician. His treatise on algebra contains the solu- tion of the cubic equation, since named after him. Carnoy, Jean Baptiste (1836-1899) --- Priest, founder of the science of cytology. Performed noted experiments on cellular segmentation. Carrel, Alexis (1875-1844) -- Nobel Prize winner in Medicine and Physiology, member of Pontifical Acad- emy of Sciences. Renowned for his contributions to sur- gical technique and his pioneer experiments on trans- plantation of organs. Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473-1543) -- Dominican tertiary and astronomer. He wrote on the heliocentric planetary theory named aflcer him, as opposed to the Ptolemaic, Divisch, Procopius (1698-1765) -- A Premonstraten alan, who erected a lightning rod ~t Premditz in 1754, before Franklin's work was known; he was also among the first to use electricity in the treatment of disease. Dumas, Jean Baptiste (1800-1884) --- One of the fore- most chemists of the nineteenth century. He introduced a method of ascertaining vapor densities. Epee, Charles Michel de L' (1712-1789) --- Priest in- ventor of the sign alphabet, the basis of all systematic instruction of the deaf and dumb. Eustachius, Bartolomeo (1524-1574) --Famous for con- tributions to the science of anatomy. The Eustachian Tube, connecting the ear and pharynx, is named after him. Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon (1819-1896) --- Made electric light practicable. Gave the first practical electric light to the world in 1844. Invented the gyroscope. Fraunhofer, Joseph von (1787-1826) -- Initiated spec- trum analysis, discovered the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum and established the laws of diffraction. Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642) -- Great natural philoso- pher and astronomer. Discovered the isochronism of the pendulum and, from his construction of a telescope which magnified 32 times, the physical features of the moon and the satellites of Jupiter. Discovered the laws of projectiles, the principles of virtual velocities and gave an exposition of the true principles of flotation. His bold support of the Copernican theory provoked a disciplin- ary condemnation from the Inquisition in 1632; there- upon he retired to his villa near Florence, receiving the special blessing of Pope Urban VIII before his death. Galvani, Luigi (1737-1798) -- Manifestations of cur- rent electricity have been named "Galvanism" in his honor. Gordon, Andrew (1712-1751) -- Benedictine monk, who first used a cylinder of glass to produce frictional electricity; invented electrical chimes. Gutenberg, Johann (1400-1468) --- Inventor of print- ing. Hengler. Lawrence (1806-1858) N A priest, inventor of the horizontal pendulum used in seismographs. Hflgard, Eugene Waldemar (1833-19161 -- Geologist, chemist. Responsible for putting agriculture on a scien- tific basis and for making it a subject of university cur- ricula. Holland. John Philip (1840-1914) -- American inven- tor of the first submarine, suqcessful from a practical viewpoint. Marconi. Marchese Guglielmo (1874-1937) --- Italian inventor and engineer To his genius is due the scien- tific triumph of wireless telegraphy or radio. Mendel, Gregor Johann. (1822-1884) ~ Augustinian priest and biologist, author of Mendel's Lawl of Hered- ity, one of the greatest discoveries in biology. Murphy, John B. (1857-1916) -- Noted American sur- geon, celebrated for the "Murphy Button," called the "greatest clinJcaI teacher of the day." Nieuwland. Julius Arthur. C. S. C. (1878-1936) -~ Chemist. and botanist. Dean of Science. Notre Dame, Ind. Contributed to the invention of Lewisite Gas. Dis- covered a method for producing synthetic rubber at low cost. Pasteur. Louis (1822-1895) -- Father of bacteriology; founded the Pasteur Institute. Famed for his vaccine against hydrophobia, for successfully combating the silk- worm disease and for Pasteurization. Takamine. Jokichi (1854-1922) -- Japanese-American convert to Catholicism. Discovered adrenalin. Torricelli. Evangelista (1608-1647) --Italian mathe- matician and physicist, invented the barometer. Volta. Alessandro. (1745-1827) -- The volt. unit of elec- tromotive force, is named after him. He also invented the first galvanic battery. ,-k * Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should he sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph rectory, Lena. Ill, It is not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a per- sonal reply. However. Father Ryan reserves the right net to use unsigned questions. -#i "ills iS'~ Vol, XXVl, No. 14 Avril 7, 19111 THE MOST REVEREND LORAS T. LANE Publishi'; THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Meneling Editer THE REVEREND WILLIAM I. JOFFE .Asst. Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER '. Wemen'l Page Editvr ROBERT WILLEMS News Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Business RC BERT I. STARR Advertising ANN BERTOLA51 Circulation The Observer ~rinted weekly at 413 Pleasant Street Beleit. Wis- ensin, is the official newspap.e.t of the Catholic Diocese 11 Reckfard. Second class postage paid at Beloit. Wisconsin, Subsctlptlenl $4.00 let yeal Irepatd in fhe UnNel lintel ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE OBSERVER. 1260 NORTH CHURCH 5TREE1 ROCKFORD. ILLINOIS. POSTMASTER: Pleaim send firm 3579 to the OBSERVER, llli Ne~i Ciblusll Street, Reckferd, UIINeis. History Lesson Is traditional Protestantism beginning to lose its power over the conscience and tone of society? The question was treated by a Protestant writer, Russell Kirk, in February FORTUNE in an ar- ticle titled: "Can Protestantism Hold Its Own in a Modern America?" He saw definite signs of a declining influence. His facts and reasons are dis- heartening and should serve, at least by indirec- tion, to alert Catholics to the continuing need to hold to "sound doctrine" without wavering or compromise. Kirk's article shows a keen perception of a grow- ing malady--the accommodation of beliefs and practices to the ever-increasing demands of a peo- ple sated with material prosperity. Traditionally, religion should among other objectives, fit man for society. The present trend is to condone his being swept along by the flood of materialism. Mr. Kirk quotes many authorities among whom are the comments of Dr. Will Herberg, Protestant theologian of Drew University, who holds that Protestantism--also Catholicism and Judaism--- do not deeply affect the lives of Americans, Reli- gion in the United States, Dr. Herberg states is "progressively evacuated of content" and is "little more than a vague spirit of friendliness and will- ingness to support churches provided these churches demand no real sacrifices and preach no exacting doctrines." He classifies this malady as the "ethos of sociability." In other words, the definite trend away from the traditional Protestant doctrines of justification by faith and the priesthood of all believers (as enun- ciated by Martin Luther) is having a damaging effect on Protestant influence on society. We refer to this eye-opening article by Kirk mainly for the purpose of self-analysis on Catho- lic influence on society. With so many millions separated from the influence of traditional Chris- II I I SEE LITTLE REAPINGS AT RANDOM onve on in By Gerard E. Sherry "Hi. Mr. Sherry." "Hi." "Haven't seen you around for a long time. Of course, you only get it cut three or four times a year." "That's right, I hate coming here. It's almost as bad ~s the dentist. Don't take much off. Just a little off the back and sides. Leave the top." "Hardly worth while coming in. Should try a crew cut some time. The way you let your hair grow, it would save money. Twice a year would be enouugh." "That's an idea. Might s a v e a few ~ ~ii:~:~:~:!:!:~:~ Always Causing Trouble "Do you think we're going to have an- other war?" ,'~ .: .: ' It's possible." :::.~. "These darn commies. They're always i~i~i;~. causing trouble in some part of the world. Don't know why we put up with them." "Well, we'll have to see what we can do to get a cease-fire just like Kennedy S~ys." "'We can't trust Khrushchev. He'll probably refuse to accept an end to the fighting. He's a real bad one, that Khrushchev fellow. No good at all." "'Well, I suppose we're going to have to deal with him whether we like it or not. He's obviously the one that is encouraging the Reds in Laos, so Kennedy will have to deal with him." We're Getting Soft "That's what I think is wrong with this government. We're always being pushed around by the Russians. It doesn't make sense to me. I remember during the First World War. We went in to help the Russians and they pushed us around then. And they've been doing it ever since. If I had my way, I'd drop a couple of atom bombs and get it all over with." f tianity, with the evidence of deifying secularism in our national life, with the appalling strides of pagan (im)morality in our society, no one can pursue the unrealistic belief that religion has a very strong influence on society. By way of inference the same fate of ineffec- tiveness on its own membership could well befall Catholicism. The first step toward that disaster would be the abandonment of doctrinal truths. If doctrine is ever pus~aed into the background in favor of sociability, or if efforts to reconcile dis- sidents mean the compromising of truth, the exit door will have been opened. It is a simple fact of human psychology that the mind of man must have truth for its nourishment; this truth becomes the motivation for properly di- rected action. If truth is abandoned there is no motive for action. We might take a page or two from Russell Kirk's ~nalysis: When we sometimes question the seem- ingly unyielding attitude of the Church in her efforts to guard the truth, we should pause to consider the catastrophe inevitable upon the aban- donment or compromising of truth. It is already happening in Protestant circles; it could happen to us. Rearmament-- Some sunny day in the forseeable future you may receive via the mails a snappy brochure soliciting your interest in a proposition: absolute honest, purity, disinterestedness and love to be practiced by each individual is the only answer to Communism. It will come under the banner of the MORAL REARMAMENT movement --- hereinafter called MRA. At first sight anyone with even a modicum of religious conviction and desire to help humanity, would immediately subscribe to the ideas and ideals of MRA. However, a closer investigation shows that MRA is not for Catholics. There are really two reasons for this conclu- sion: the decision against MRA by Church auth- orities (which in times past was sufficient reason for good Catholics) and the record of MRA -- if further persuasion be necessary. The history of MRA goes back some forty years. It was founded by an American, Dr. Frank N. D. Buchman, a Lutheran minister, active in religious promotion. Possessing qualities of persuasive lead- ership, he conceived the idea of training followers in religious ideals for world leadership. At first the group was known as Buchmanites. Later, the group became known as the Oxford Group (not of Cardinal Newman fame). During World War II the group now transformed into a world-wide movement became known as Moral Rearmament. In its beginning it was closely connected with revivalism. In recent years it has assumed the character of a non-sectarian religion --- a kind of super-religion embracing all groups. While the ideals of striving for the four abso- lutes: honesty, purity, disinteredness and love are most praiseworthy, the method encouraged by MRA is not acceptable to Catholics. It infers that each man is under the direct influence of the Holy Spirit as the sole source of his religious con- victions. The practice of revealing past failings to members of the group team is not acceptable. In other words, the divinely established Church already has all that MRA can offer plus much more in the deposit of faith given by Christ to His Church. MRA operating at top efficiency can add nothing to the life of a Catholic. Active participation in MRA is in reality a de- nial of the article of faith: "I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church." It opens the door to religious indifferentism "one religion is as good as another" --- and subtly undermines the belief in the divine institution of the Catholic Church. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM I I II III Sou Only an idiot would make the statement that v~e do not need laws to protect the peace and promote the common good of the nation. Law and public author- ity play a very important part in the social philosophy of the Catholic Church. If we are to have an ordered society, we must have leg- islation -- laws of all kinds -- punitive laws, social - welfare laws. When that has been s a i d, t h e r e's still much more to be said on the subject. Two cliches, much in vogue, might stand a bit of air- ing. The one pops up in print quite frequently, especially in the conservative press. It reads: "The least governed people is the best governed people." The remark is usually attributed to Thomas Jefferson. Share Common Fallacy The other is the lazy man's answer to annoying social prob- lems. You'll hear him muttering in his beat'd, "There ought to be a law." On the surface, these two statements seem to be in con- flict. One says that we should have fewer laws. The other im- plies we ought to have a law about almost everything. In the concrete they share a common fallacy. Neither of them res- pects the sound foundation upon which law must be built. By way of example, let's take a few of the major social prob- lems of the day. 1. Corruption in labor unions. 2. Materialism in management. 3. "Open for Business on Sun- clay" evil. Acted Too Late The "there ought to be a law" school of thought says, "Put Hoffa in jail. End u~nion abuses by law:" The AFL-CIO. on the other hand. Iateed these prob- lems in a direct and courageous way. It established a Code of Ethical Practices and enforced ial FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S. J. it. Then it bogged down. This was one of the finest examples of genuine social ac- tion ever attempted in this coun- try or any other. Why, then, did it succumb so quickly? The basic reason was that it had come about thirty ' years too late. The delay brought on the Taft - Hartley law and then the Landrum - Griffin act, each aimed at curbing labor unions because they could not or would not discipline themselves. Spirit of Materialism Example 2. "Materialism in management." No law could ever be devised to eliminate this kind of poison from the man- agerial mind. Organized groups of Christian employers and man- agement people, h o w e v e r, "working from within", insinu- ating in a proper way the sound principles of the encyclicals could act as the leaven in the mass. How many Catholic em- ployers do we have who are even willing to meet for a group discussion on these principles? When this spirit of material- ism flows over and its effects are shown in violations of the Anti-Trust Laws, what is the reaction of the advocates of the "least governed people" phi- losophy? The common opinion, more often than not. is "every- body's doing it -- why get ex- cited about one particular case?" America At Fault A law can only be as effec- tive as the willingness of the people to accept it and of pub. lic authority to enforce it. The only valid premise for a "least governed people" phi- losophy of life is that the cit- izens themselves anticipate the need of action and social and moral pressure and so keep legislation to a mimmum. When abuses appear, in spite of proper private initiative, and laws are enacted, thd citizens must be ready and willing to respect the law. Otherwise. laws ~ultiply. On both counts. modern America is much at fault. Sunday Shopping Evil The social principle which I am enunciating can perhaps be seen most clearly in the third examPle cited, the "open for business on Sunday" evil. This is a question of Sunday shop- ping. The abuse has become so prevalent in many places that it amounts to a desecration of the Sabbath. The "there ought to be a law" champions are particularly vo- ciferous on this issue. Two simple questions, I think, can put the problem in focus: "What have the customers of such stores, Catholic as well as non-Catholic, done about the problem before shouting for a law? How many patronize these places on week days (to save a few cents on a bargain) and then shout to close them on Sun- days ?" Seeds Of Decline Without doubt in a nation as large as ours, the passage of many laws is a necessity. Cath- olic social teaching demands a proper and important role for ]caw in the protection of the pub- lic welfare. But when a people of a nation allow such a trend of apathy, indifference and in- ertia to go on so that they ex- pect civil law (a) to legislate its citizens into morality, (b) to be a substitute for personal respon. sibility, (c) and to be the first remedy for social problems by refusing to build a foundation of sound social action (upon which proper law may rest) such a nation is on the way to encouraging a totalitarian type of government 'or sowing the seeds of its own decline. "There ought to be a law" is not a philosophy of life. It is a slogan behind which too many try to hide their lack of social responsibility. "The least governed people is the best governed people" is for people who deserve this type of government. By their organized activity they make it unneces- sm'v to pass laws. This ideal can be attained only through the active participation of many citizens in the exercise of sound social principles as enunciated by the Popes in their social encyclicals. m or (Inl "Well. you can,t do that these days. Drop a couple of atom bombs over there and you get a hundred over here." "So what. Better to fight! them than be pushed around. We're all gettin' too soft. If only Teddy Roosevelt was alive. I remember him, you know. Saw him once when I lived in the East. He was a good guy. Knew how to handle these gangsters. Wish there were more like him today." Just Like Germans "Well, you ~now things are different these days. We're not the only ones with atom bombs and tither means to destroy the world. So I suppose we have to talk first: if the talking doesn't do any good, then I suppose we'll have to act." "Oh, I don't believe in that. Comes a time when you can't afford to be pushed around. That's what the Gcr- man.v tried to do to us in World War I. The British and French were in a bad way. Then we sent over the Ma- rines, and the Germans got what was coming to them. They tried the same thing in 1942 and look what we did to them. These Russians are no better than the Germans. They've got to stop pushing us around. Can't stand those Russians anyhow. Never did like them. And that Khrush- chev fellow--there's a bad one. Why, did you hear about him taking his shoes off in the U.N. No decent man would do a thing like that--at least, not in public. It ain't sur- prising. After all. never did trust them Russians, and now they're pushing us around out in Asia. What's Ken- nedy going to do?" "Oh. I don't know. He'll give them time to reply to his proposalS, and then if they want to talk, he'll talk, and see if we. can come to some accommodations." "Allies" Scared "Talking's no good to those Reds. They think We're scared: so they'll make impossible demands. They'll prob- ably tell us to get out of Asia. They've got a nerve! I know, if I was in Kennedy's place, I wouldn't be pushed around. I'd tell them Russians 'get'out Of Laos or else we'll bomb Moscow'. It would be as simple as that. And I'd mean it too. If they didn't get out, I'd bomb them. Then we'd have no more trouble." "You can't do that these days. You've not only got the United States to think/about but its allies in Europe ~nd Asia. The British and French would have some say in i~''' "They're not allies. Most of them are scared. Look what happened in Korea, We had both the North Koreans and the Chinese licked, but they stopped ol' MacArthur from going in to China. Of course, I always knew Truman was a bit of a Red. He let those British talk him out of bomb- ing the Chinese. If they'd done' that, we would have won the war and wouldn't have any trouble with these fellows in Laos." Reds Full of Tricks "Well. it might have started another World War. It's anybody's guess what would have happened. I think an uneasy peace is better than obliteration. Maybe, eventual. ly we can get somewhere." "I don't think so. Those Reds are full of tricks. Much too smart for most of us fellows. I'd know how to handle them, though. I'd tilt all our bombers with H bombs a~d let the Russians know we meant business. They under- stand that kind of language. They'd back down because they're }ust as scared as we are." "Well. I can't agree with you. We've got to explore ev- ery avenue before we resort to any military action." "That's what's wrong with you educated guys. "You think you can reason with a man like Khrushchev. Well, you can't. You meet force with force. You know, I was in the First World War. I'm getting on to 71. If I was one of those younger fellows, I'd be only too glad' to go to Laos and kick those commies out. That Kennedy fellow, he's being fooled by Khrushchev. Wish Teddy Roosevelt was alive. He'd show 'em What did he say? 'Speak softly and carry a big stick.' Well, that's what I'd do. I'd show them commies . . ."