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February 24, 1961     The Observer
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February 24, 1961

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O ons on eros By Father John Ryan IN A RECENT RELIGION CLASS MY DAUGHTER WAS TAUGHT THAT THE STORY OF ADAM AND EVE WAS MERELY A FABLE, TO SHOW THAT MAN IS FAL- LIBLE? Zither your daughter misunde~rstood the teacher or you misunderstood your daughter's account of what was said. CAN CATIIOLICS BE MARRIED BY PROXY? The Code of Canon Law on this matter reads as follows: "The pastor shall not assist at a marriage which is to be contra~cted by proxy or by an interpreter, unless there be just cause for it. the authenticity of the commission and the trustworthiness of the interpreter be beyond all possible doubt and the permission of the Ordinary be obtained if time permits." This manner of entering into marrzage is allowed only by way of exception when there is very serious cause for departing from the usual procedure. All precautions must be taken to remove the danger of error and fraud. If there is not serious reason, if there is any doubt about the documents or the free state of the absent party, the marriage is not permitted. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE "SOLEMNIZATION OF MARRIAGE"? This is an expression which indicates that the marriage ceremony 1~ accompanied by the nuptial Mass during which the nuptial Blessing is imparted. Such solemniza- tion is forbidden from the beginning of Advent till Christ- mas Day and Irom Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday inclusively. This does not mean that the marriage cere- mony cannot be performed during those times but if so, it may not be accompanied by the nuptial Mass and Bless- ing. In cases of urgency or necessity, the bishop may per- mit the solemnities during the forbidden times. IS IT WRONG TO GO ON PRAYING FOR A SPECIAL INTENTION EVEN THOUGH IT WAS NOT GRANTED? There is nothing wrong with, persevering in prayer, pro- vided we have the intention of submitting to the will of God. It was Our Lord who said, "The Kingdom of Heaven suffereth violence and the violent bear it away." but we should always have that submission to the will of God, DID OUR LORD CARRY THE WHOLE CROSS OR JUST THE CROSSBAR? There were three kinds of crosses used in New Testa- ment days. The. 'crux commissa' in the form of a T, tlm 'crux decussata' in the form of an X. and the 'crux im- missa' with a short head-piece. The shape of the cross upon which Christ died is not certainly known, but it is determined that probably it was the T form with the UP- right extending slightly above with room for an inscription. The transverse beam was called the 'patibulum', and in Roman practice, the one condemned carried this beam. This was probably true also in the case of Our Blessed Lord. ', CAN A RELIGIOUS ORDER REFUSE A CANDIDATE MERELY BECAUSE SHE HAS POOR HEALTH? Part of the vocation to religion given by God is the gift of good health. Naturally, religious Orders could not un- dertake to support.for life those who might become chron- ic illness cases. Indeed. the fact that a person's health is bad might be an indication that they have no vocation regardless of what other signs of a vocation they have. ARE CATHOLICS A L L 0 W E D TO BELIEVE IN DREAMS? ,The Church says we may not believe in dreams unless we are sure they come from God: If God sends us a dream He will also send us the means of knowing it was from Him. IS IT PERMISSIBLE.TO HAVE A CATHOLIC WED- DING CEREMONY PERFORMED IN THE EVENING? According to the synodal laws of the Diocese of Rock- ford: It is forbidden to celebrate marriage after twelve o'clock noon, unless it concerns a validation ceremony to be contracted privately. (215) Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St Joseph rectory, Lena, Ill. It is not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a per- serial reply. However, Father Ryan reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. S Souls are like wax waiting for a seal. By themselves they have no special identity. Their destiny is to be sof- tened and prepared in this life, by God's Will, to receive, at their death, the seal of their own degree of likeness: to God in Christ. And this is what it means, among other things, to be judged hy Christ. The wax that has melted in God's will can easily receive the stamp of its identity, the truth of what it was meant to be. But the wax that is hard and dry and brittle and without love will not take the seal: for the seal, falling upon it, grinds it to powder. ---Thomas Mertoa, Man is a being of genius, passion, intellect, conscience. power. He exercises these various gifts in various ways. in great deeds, in great thoughts, in heroic acts. in' hate- ful crimes, He founds states, he fights battles, he builds cities, he 'ploughd ihe ~ores't, he subdues the elements, he rules his kind He creates vast ideas, and influences many generations. He takes a thousand shapes, and under. goes a thousand fortunes. Literature records them all to the life. --Cardinal Newman ~ES$ k Vol. XXV'I No, Feb. 24, 196! THE MOST REVEREND LORA$ T. LANE,--,; ; Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEWL . ,~. Managing Editor THE REVEREND WILLIAM I. JOFFE Asst. Managing Editor MARJOR[E GALLAGHER -. Women's Page Editor PATRICIA NORMAN ,~ Feature Editor BEVLAH O'MEARA ~ Business ROBERT J. STARR ,-,-~-,~-~ -- Adverhsmg ANN BERTOLASI Circulation r ~ -- .The Observer: printed weekly at 413 Pleasant St~oet. SeIoit ,Wis- consin, IS the ott claD newspaper Of the Catholic Oioceile '~'tRo~:kford Secon~J class postage paid at Beloit Wisconl|n. : Sul~crlptlen= ~4.00 pc! year prepaid tn the Uedted Stet~ ALL COMMUNIC.-~TIONS SHOULD RE ADDRESSED~ TOTHli OBSERVER. 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREEg .ROCKFORD. ILLINOIS. POSTMASTERt Pluw send form 3S79' te the OBSERVER, I~Jb0 NeMk Churck Street, Re kferd, nll~elL Pariah is an ugly word in the language of so- ciologists and students of w o r l d problems. It paints, as few words can. the unsightly picture of forced separation, discrimination and denial of human rights inherent in the cast system of India. But "'pariah" seems to be the official designation ---in fact if not in words for some of our nations private schools. What else but "hands-off." "outcast." "too hot- to handle" could be the cause of curren~ policies (we do not say views) outlined in proposals for Federal Aid to Education and in the even rfi o r e significant directives on allotment o'f emergency Federal aid funds for C u b a n refugees in t h e schools of Miami? Concerning the Federal Aid to Education bill. we make the following observations: President Kennedy in his message to Congress on the Edu- cation bill recommended the establishment of a five year program of state administered scholar, ships for college and university students--which would be open to all young people without re- gard to sex. race. creed or color, solely on t he basis of their ability and their financial n e e d. This sounds like good old American thinking and practice, i However. any suggestions of aid for students in private schools on the elementary and second- ary level meet with quick dismissal on the grounds of the "clear prohibition of the Constitution." This is not so clear. Why the distinction between col- lege level and other level schools? Does age make the difference? No one has given a clear expla- nation of this distinction. We think that it xs a matter of expediency rather than principle--there is just too much agitation against aid for lower- level private schools. On last Sunday's "Meet the Press." a cabinet member. Abraham A Ribicoff, S e c r e t a r y 'of Health Education and Welfare. voiced in clear, concise language the administration's view that aid to private schools would be unconstitutional, There was no amplification as at he r questions crowded into this valuable half-hour of public information. But the constitutional roots of this exclusion of private lower-level schools (ru 1 e s which apparently apply with age-level only) are usually taken from the first Amendment. But the First Amendment reads: "C o n g r e s s shall pass no law respecting an establishment of religion nor prohibit the free exercise thereof." It is a very importantquestion whether or not aid to private Iower-level~s c h o o I s would "es= tablish" religion when in the same proposals aid to private collegbs obviously oes not effect this "establishment." The logical truth is that aid to private colleges does not establish an official state religmn nor would aid to lower level s c h o o 1 s bring this about. Incidentally, whatever happened to the Four- teenth Amendment which states that individual states are re give equal protection of the law to all their citizens? But the "pariah" status of private elementary and high schools is also evidenced by the develop- ments in Miami. Federal Aid for the, C u b a n refugees in Florida is a commendable a c t i o n. There are 3.500 Cuban children in the p u b 11 c schools and 2.500 Cuban child refugees in t h e parochial schools of Miami. Both school systems have opened their doors in a charitable gesture attempting to solve the emergency problem. Both definitely need help under these strained condi- tions. Yet. parochial schools a r e n o t receiving Federal Aid for the refugees children enrolled therein. Is this on the basis of "clearly prohibited by the Constitution." or rather the result of the haunting fear of reprisal if under any circum- stances federal money should find its way into the coffers of private schools" l lower level only, re- member). Under no circumstances should these schools receive any aid because m reality they are "pariah." For the record we restate that we are not con- vinced that Federal Aid to Education will solve the problems facing education. In v i e w of t h e obvious discrimination against lower level private schools, we judge that the proposals for Federal Aid are a result of pressure groups rather than a conscientious attempt to solve a national problem. GUEST EDITORIAL O Ed. nora: The follow~ng editorial is reprinted ]ram the Washb~gron Star. n daily paper i~ our natio~Ps capital Throughout the world, in places as far apart as Peiping, Moscow and New York. the Communists and their fellow travellers--together with just plain, simple-mihded dupes--have wept and wail- ed synthetically in a screaming, riotous lament over the death of pro-Soviet Patrice L umumba. But by way of contrast--a contrast further expos- ing their clamorous bereavement as something carefully staged to serve the cause of Red totali- tarianism in the Congo and Africa as a whole-- these very same people have shed not a eear for Father Rene De Vos. After all. who has ever heard of this servant of God. and why should a good atheistic Marxist give him a second thought? Well. for those who may have missed the story in the rush of it should be reported that Father De Vos has murdered in the Congo, and in a most vile way. Wholly innocent of any conceivable connection with the Lumumba slaying, he has been sacrificed to the mob spirit of blindly unreasoning Lumum- bis ts incited to violence by the Kremlin's veno- mous propaganda. Thus. while walking unoffend- ingly and defenselessly along a street in a town called Bukavu. he has been done to death with unspeakable savagery first beaten unmercifully, then his ears cat off, and finally, in a kind of cor- poral work of mercy, beheaded. Yet no voice has been raised behind the Iron Curtain to protest In that sense, unlike Patrice Lumumba. Father De Vos. with news reports barely identifying him and devoting only a few lines to his story, seems to be little more than a cipher in the history of our times. Yet. forgotten as he and his name may be. he is inn peculiar way a key part of that his- tory. And surely there are some among his fellow men who must remember him. and pray for him, and weep silently for him. and cry to heaven for an end to such evil as has snuffed out his good life so atrociously. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM i ell REAPINGS AT RANDOM I ape George Romney, President of American Motors Corporation, enjoys a reputation for busir}ess acumen, sound ethical stan- dards and a decent interest in the public welfare. O FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S. J. me. but it isn't quite clearly stated in the ad. Business Week. issue dated December 24th, commenting on the "crusade" shows pretty clearly that American Motors When he and his associates at is not going to lose any money American Motors introduced the on the new deal with its cus- comnact "Rambler" automobile to the industry, he cracked the "big car" mon- opoly and broke the hearts of profit - hungry competitors who w e r e enjoying all the fruits of America's craze Ior mobile con- veniences and conveyances. With the flourish of well-tim- ed and cleverly worded na~ion- wide advertising, a few months ago, Mr. Romney came u~ with a new "crusade" under the slo- gan "adequate progress in shar- ing with our customers." The plan is a sort of profit sharing idea with a Madison Ave/~ue touch of salesmanship. The months o~ December, January, February and March were selected as a test period for the new consumer crusade. In December. 1959. American Motors sold 30,165 cars. If sales for Decerrrber. 1960, reached 33,181 that would represent ten per cent increase in cars sold. The buyers of Rambler cars will then receive a twenty- five dollar Government Saving Bond as a December rebate. And so it will go for each of the other three months. A fifty per cent increase [n sales will bring a $125 United States Sav- ing Bond as a proportionate share in the proiits. If I figure it correctly, "the buyer bonus" represents about one per cent of the sales price for the ten per cent increase in sales and five per cent if the in- crease goes to fifty per cent. The dollar value of a $25 United States Bond of course, ~s $18.75. not $25. That's all right with tamers. The manufacturer rea~s higher profits per car as sales increase beyond a certain point. That's all right with me. too. It's no sin to make money, as long as it is done honestly and the buyer is getting a proper value for his dollar. American Motors. with some justification, claims credit for introducing the compact car; that it is more serviceable than the bigger model, mars econ- omical, better on average than the compact car its competitors are putting out. I will take Mr. Romney's word for the tr~e value of his product. His credit is ~ood on the truth market. There is an ironm little point that might be made concerning Rambler's "crusade" for shar- ing its profits with its custom- ers. Business Week. in a para- graph captioned "No Panic," observes "other companies m Detroit say they aren't excited over the American Motors plan. -- The general feeling in the in- dustry is that Romney has come up with another risk-free promo- tion." Two years.ago when Walter Reuther made the suggestlon of including a profit sharing pro- vision in the contract betwdcn the Big Three automobile manu- facturers and the automobile workers such a shout of "So- cialism! Communism!" went up from the Big Moguls of Auto- land that a careless observer might have gotten the impres- sioh Reuther was leading a bat- talion of Russian troops in De- troit. Granted that the Reuther pro- posal differed very much from the Romney approach. But in the light of sound social prin- ciple, there was nothing any more Socialistic about Reu- ther's profit-sharing suggestion than there is in the Rambler sales gimmick. George Romney has an ad. vantage over Reuther. He never worked in a Soviet plant for a year or so 'at the age of 26. He ~s also a member of the "Club." He belongs to the proper indus- trial fraternity. Reuther may be vulnerable to criticism or~ more than one point. No businessman, to my knowledge, has fought Khrush- chev and Communism stubbornly and "successfully has the much-maligned Reuther. Prejudice Costs A government official has added up the cost of prejudice and found it too high. Louis F. Buckely, mid-Atlan- tic regional director of the La- bor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics, said continued race discrimination in employ- ment would be costly to the economy in the coming decade. Mr. Buckeley noted that there will be a relative shortage dur- ing the 1960's of workers in the 35-44 age group. He said this shortage will cre- ate "'a compelling economic rea- son for hiring qualified Negro workers," in addition to the mor- al reasons. "There will not be enough white workers in the prime age group to meet the needs of in- dustry," he told the ninth an- nual Labor-Management Con- ference at Notre Dame Univer- sity today. "This will bring to light the high price we have paid for moral neglect in terms of waste of talent and skill, which we cannot afford to continue." he said. "The price of pi'ejudice will increase in the future." Mr. Buckely also said the growing demand for skilled craftsmen and white collar workers will make necessary more and better education. By Gerard E. Sherry President Kennedy's call for increases in both the amounts and terms at unemployment compensation have brought the usual cries of the welfare state and what have you.' There are some who claim there ~s no recession or depression, and that while things are not good they are not as bad as painted. President Kennedy put the whole situa- tion in its right pe/'spective when he said that to those out of work. it is a depression. You can't Write it off as propaganda when there is genuine need. For Catholics there are very definite principles involved and guide lines to be followed. Needs Necessities if one accepts the necessity.of a living, saving family wage for the security of the worker and his family and the subsequent necessity of modification of the family wage in accord with increased costs of living, it is difficult to reject theoretically or practically modification of unemployment compensa- tion benefits. The rate of increase in benefits logically ought to follow the costs of living index, which do not de- crease for the family of the unemployed worker. One may rightfully demand that the unemployed worker aban- don luxuries "during his period of unemployment, but one cannot ask him to forego the basle necessities of decent sustenance. Ordinarily, unemployed benefits afford less than:luxurious living and in most instances scarcely allow for the minimum necessities. Only Emphasizes Injustices It is rather fUtile to point out that some individuals ob- taining uneraployment compensatipn may in some in- ~tahces secure more money than those who are employed, a ,ng for this is only to emphasize the fact' that some industries are not yet giving the workers a ]t~st, living, family-~yage. ~When unemployment benefits are thought" to be inadequate in a given economic situation, the normal yardstick for adjustment ought to be the current costs of living index and not a wage or wages obtained by workers who are yet struggling to meet the costs because social justice is denied them.' Those who argue against increase in unemployment compensation because of present or possible abuse ought to remember that the elimination of abuses is an admin- istration matter and not a" restrictive social leg. islation. One cannot ethically repudiate a law because of defective administration of the law. nor can one argue against increased benefits in unemployment compensa- tion generally because of abuses under the law that one ~s perso,nally familiar with over a period 'of time. Long ~stablished Principles The morality, and economic necessity o[ unemployment compensation on principle has been now long established, especially for Catholics, Papal statements on the social- economid order have always associated unem~ployment in. surance or~ compensation with the living wdge, and our American .Catholic Bishops who as early as 1919 stated the principle ir~ these words: "The state should make comprehensive provision for insurance against illness, invalidity, unemployment and old ag~. So far as possible the insurance fund should be raised by a levy on industry as it is now (Idne in accident compensation The industry in which a man is employed should proidde him with all that is necessary to meet the needs of his' entire life." Application of Principles The application of" the established principle to an exist- ing situation demands an honest presentation of facts from an impartial source and the pri~icipal cannot be morally defended in its application or rejection when sta- tistics are twisted, propaganda is advanced instead of truth, and arguments of an emotional rather than logical nature are given the public. A grave injustice is done the voting public and the common good when the atmosphere surrounding the public vote is tainted with the smog of private interests and the eyes of the voting public blurred with particles of error instead of being to penett:ate the issue with the light of truth. Hardly a Norm Some states have a limited dependence clause in un- employment compensation laws .which may re~lect the typical American family, but it can be-scarcely defended as a norm in the ethics of family life. A man ought to be Dee from the immoral peril of unnaturally limiting his Iamily by the guarantee of a family wage. sufficient for the children beyond the number of two; he ought also m have the guarantee of sustenance support for more than two,children in his period of unemployment. Two chil. dren may be the statistical average of the American fam- ily in computation of economic need. but it is entirely too impersonal a norm to be morally right in all instances. Sympathy Not Sufficient To any family that has the breadwinner unemployed, it isn't suIficient to offer sympathy. After all. sympathy, or even understanding will not pay the bills or feed and clothe children. Wtien there is a genuine need, and pri- vate funds are exhausted, the unemployed should be aid. ed by w~atever State' or Federal steps that are necessary. This is no time to parody Marie Antoinette, The unem- ployed should not have to beg for charity. In their behalf we must demand justice and it is justice here thetis ex- acted.