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February 3, 1961     The Observer
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February 3, 1961
 

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WASH I NGTON BACKGROUND ressures e IYI InS By Father John Ryan WHEN WAS THE MASS FIRST WRITTEN DOWN? The most ancient written forms of the Roman Mass we possess have come down to us in three books called the Sacramentaries, which bear the names of Pope Leo I (440-461), Gelasius I (492-496), and Gregory I (590-604). These Sacramentaries contained only the prayers to be recited by the priest in the celebration of Mass and in the administration of the Sacraments, e.g the Orations and Prefaces with the Canon, the rite of administering Baptism and Holy Orders, and the bless- ing bf holy oils. The parts of Mass which were sung by the choir were in another book called in early times, the Antiphon- arium and later the Graduale. The Epis- tles and Gospels, since they were read or sung by the Deacon or another min- ister were in still another book called the Lectionary. Later, the Antiphonarium and the Lectionary were incorporated into one book along with the prayers of the priest. This book is known as the Missal. Our Missal is principally derived from the Sacramentary of St. Gregory the Great. Under him, the Canon of the Mass received its last addition. The rest of the constituent parts of the Roman Missal date back at least to the fifth century or even the fourth century. However, it is to be remem- bered that Mass was celebrated already at the time of the Apostles who, immediately after the Ascension, be- gan to carry out Christ's command at th~ Last Supper: "Do this in commemoration of me." The priests and bishops of early Christianity followed the practice of the Apostles. Pope Innocent I (402-417) traces the origin of the Roman manner of saying Mass to the Prince of the Apostles: "Who does not know," he writes, "that what has been handed by Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, to the Roman Church is still observed unto this day, and must be observed by all?" CAN A WOMAN MARRIED TO A DIVORCED MAN RECEIVE THE LAST SACRAMENTS WHEN SHE IS DY- ING? A priest will certainly not refuse to attend such a wom- an at the hour of death, and provided that she. is sorry for her sins and promises, in the event of recovery, to break this unholy union, she is entitled to absolution and Holy Viaticum. As in all cases of sin, absolution depends upon sorrow for past sins and the firm resolve to avoid sin in the future to the best of one's ability. Sad to say, however, in such marriages, while the longing to get back into the Church may be strong, the reluctance to give up the occasion of sin is sometimes even stronger, consequently there is no true sorrow. WHAT IS ONE SUPPOSED TO DO WITH BROKEN RE- LIGIOUS STATUES, ROSARIES, ETC.? Broken religious statues can be broken further so that they are not recognizable as religious articles; they can be burned, or buried. The same is to be said of broken rosaries. The main thing is to try to protect them from abuse or ridiculous use. -k -k , MAY A BLESSED CANDLE BE USED FROM YEAR TO YEAR OR MUST IT BE REBLESSED? Once a blessed candle, always a blessed candle. IS THE CATHOLIC PARTY'~ RING BLESSED IN A MIXED MARRIAGE? No blessings are given in the ceremony of a mixed mar- gage. This reflects the Church's sadness over the fact that one of her children is entering the many dangers in- volved in a mixed marriage. However, if the Catholic person wants the wedding ring blessed privately and out- side of the r~arriage ceremony, this may be done. IS IT NECESSARY TO TAKE A NAME AT CONFIRMA- TION?, It is customary, but not essential. ARE THE SUFFERINGS OF THE DAMNED IN PRO- PORTION TO THE NUMBER OF SINS ON THE SOUL AT THE MOMENT OF DEATH? / Yes. God "will render to every man according to his works." All who die in mortal sin are condemned to hell, but the pain of the toss of God and the pain of sense will have different degrees. IS A LAY PERSON EVER ALLOWED TO TOUCH THE BLESSED SACRAMENT? A lay person is allowed to touch the Blessed Sacrament only in case of necessity, as, for instance, when the Bless- ed Sacrament is in danger of being profaned or de- stroyed. Questions for "YOU ASKED IT" should be sent to: Father John Ryan, St. Joseph Rectory, Lena, HI. It iS not necessary to sign your name unless you wish a per- Tonal reply. However, Father Ryun reserves the right not to use unsigned questions. Human nature is in all ages and in all countries the same; and its literature, therefore, will ever and every- where be one and the same also. Man's work will savor of man; in his elements and powers excellent and admirable, but prone to disorder and excess, to ,error and sin. Such too will be his literature; it will have the beauty and the fierceness, the sweetness and the frankness, of the natural man. Cardinal Newman. Youth is preeminently the period in which a man can be lyric, ~nalytieal poetic; but youth is the period in which a man can be hopeless. The end of every episode is, the end of the World. But the power of hoping through everything, the knowledge that the soul survives its adventures, that great inspiration comes to the middle-aged. God has kept that good wine until now. G, K. Chesterton a~,d m, mm, 8 ~ elJ~ ~ Vat. XXVl, No. 5 Feb. 3, 1961 THE MOST REVEREND LORAS T. LANE Publisher THE REVEREND ARTHUR J. O'NEILL Managing Editor THE REVEREND WILLIAM I. JOFFE Asst. Managing Editor MARJORIE GALLAGHER Women's Page Editor PATRICIA NORMAN .~ : Feature Editor BEULAH O'MEARA Business ROBERT J. STARR Advertising PAUL W. COLLIN Advertising ANN BERTOLASI Circulation The Observer, printed weekly at 413 Pleasant Street Be!oit. Wis- consin, is the official newspaper of the Catholic Diocese of RockfO~'d. " $econd c/ass postage paid at Beloit, Wisconsin. Subscriptions $4.00 pet year prepaid in the United States ALL COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO TH| OBSERVER, 1260 NORTH CHURCH STREE'I'. ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS. POSTMASTER: Please send form 3579 to the OBSERVER, 1240 North Gkurch Sfl'eelr, Rockford, U|inois. ! (Editor's Note: This introduces a ~ew colun~n which will appear bi-weekly on this page. The author, Mrs. Herzfeld will cover a wide range of covcrete curre~t issues and presents a competent treatment of these issues for our readers i~formation.) Norma Krause Herzfeld Understandingly enough, an outgoing administration al- ways makes an effort to impose its policies upon an incom- ing administration. This has been seen here recently in foreign, economic and space policy as last-minute acts and gestures put pressures on the new Kennedy admin- istration to go along with already "established" policies. One of the most signifcant sets of pressures has been set up in the field of civil rights. This is especially note- worthy because the Eisenhower administration had a rather sluggish record here and reporters spent years trying to get the President to come out and say whether he had any opinion on the 1954 Supreme Court decision ending the legality of segregated schools, or if he felt that any moral issue was involved. As he handed in his resigna- tion recently, Gordon Tifltany, staff director of the U. S. Civil Rights Commission, said: "Civil rights have un- questionably been a White. House orphan." Yet at his annual Christmas tree-lighting ceremony, Eisenhower spoke emphatically of this country looking "into the mirror of conscience," of "bitter prejudice" and "differences of skin pigmentation" which keeps Americans from enjoying "equality of political and eco- nomic opportunity." And right after Christmas, He wrote a personal letter to James Gabrielle, whose family led the fight against the white boycott of a desegregated New Or- leans school and was forced to leave the state. In it, he said, "If all of us will, like yourself and-your family, stand up to be counted in the cause of human dignity, even though personal sacrifice be involved, these goals will one day be attained." The President's Committee on Government Contracts, established ~ 1953 bY executive order to get government contract holders to end discriminatory employment prac- DAI / SOUGHT AND FOUND REAPINGS AT RANDOM MC By Gerard E. Sherry One of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be faced by Congress in the coming months is Federal Aid to Education. Already it has generated both heat and light. Inasmuch as the first Catholic Presiclent is now in office and is pushing for educational legisla- tion which will omit benefits for private ~iii!i and religiotis schools, we must obvious- ', ":iiiii!ii ly tread very warily. Enemies of the i~i!ii~ i!!::i~ Church, both in and out of Congress, ~i::: have become extra vigilant. The over- worked cry of separation of Church and State has been constantly repeated in the past few weeks.' More recently Francis Cardinal Spell- man, Archbishop of New York, charg- ed that the administration's proposals on legislation are blatently discrimina: tory and threaten "thought control" for millions of citizens. He said parents and children will be deprived of freedom of mind and freedom of religion guaranteed by the Con- stitution. Expected to Call for $9,300,000,000 : The administration's recommendations to Congress are expected to call for a $9,300,000,000 program of Federal Aid to Education with $5,809,000 alloted to public elementary and high schools. No Catholic schools, or schools of other religious denomination are expected to be included in the proposals. ~ I This is discriminatory against religious schools, all the more so when we consider that Catholics, Protestants, and Jews who finance their own schools hre expected to pay the same taxes as other citizens who benefit fro~ Federal Aid to public schools. Indeed, the Catholic school system has some 5,000,000 students out .of a total parochial and private school population of 6,800,000. The Lutherans come next with 158,000. Obviously these privately supported schools save all tax payers millions of dollars a year in local, State and Federal funds. Support Principle of Separation Despite the obvious discrimination in the proposed Fed- eral Aid ~o Education, I think it clear that our Bishops -*oundl support the Constitutional principle oI the separa- i tires, through voluntary and educational efforts, has just turned in its final report with some of the strongest rec- ommendations ever made by a government agency actually involved in interracial work. The Committee called all the ills contributing to job discrimination for minority groups, mostly Negroes--discrimination in training, refer- ral, recruitment, education and housing--"the country's most destructive social and economic problem." The Committee urged that the federal government insist on equal opportunity in every kind of program to which it contributes any funds, and suggested that this broad policy be implemented through legislation, executive or- der and administrative ruling. It recommended that it be made a permanent commission. (This was part of the civil rights package sought in the last Congress but knocked out by Democratic filibuster, threat and "compromise.") The Justice depaartment which had expected White House pressure against New Orleans. segregationists and Louisiana officials, was disappointed in these hopes but went on vigorously to fight for court orders throwing out state segregation laws, citing state officials for contempt and directing banks to allow the school board to pay teachers. In Tennessee, where Negroes claimed they were being persecuted for attempting to register and vote, the Justice department not only went to court for injunctions against landowners who allegedly threatened to throw share- croppers offflheir land solely because they attempted to vote. It also brought suit against white mayors, bankers, landowners, insurance agents, merchants and grocers who allegedly planned and enforced economic reprisals against vote conscious Negroes. These government actions have finally taken place in two Tennessee counties named in the 1959 report of the Civil Rights Commission as two of three counties where "intimidation (does)"pose a serious threat to Negro registration." In one of these counties, Negroes own more land and pay more taxes than white people, but they must observe a strict curfew, are not permitted to dance or drink beer, are not permitted near the courthouse 'unless on business', and have not been permitted to register and vote for 50 years. In one county, according to the commission report, there were 7,921 voting age Negffoes with no registrations, and in the other 8,990 voting-age Negroes, With 58 registra- tions. "Since the report was made, some of the Negroes or- ganized and put on a phenomenal mass registration drive, getting 2,200 voters on the books. About 1,200 actually voted in the presidential election. It was for this that the white landowners were going to throw them off their farms at the beginning of this year. Temporary injunctions have been granted against evic- tions on civil rights grounds, but the suits against practi- tioners of economic reprisals have yet to be tried. They represent a comparatively bold step on the part of the federal government and it will be left to the new Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, and his aides to push these ef- forts. The Committee on Government Contracts, has been as- signed to Vice-President Lyndon Johnson. How vigorou ly he pursues equal job opportunities for all remains be seen. Some Republicans are saying that spokesmen for Presi dent Kennedy have informed Civil rights advocates that they will have to wait for action in this area because there is so much to be done in other areas first. Whether or not this is true, the outgoing administration has cer- tainly put Kennedy and the Democrats on the spot for fulfillment of all those campaign platform pledges. Wheth- er or not these pressures are intentional, Republicans will not be unhappy to see the Democratic struggle be- tween its Northern and Southern segments over civil rights. If the political maneuvering can be kept to a mini- mum, the way is open for some major accomplishments in this crucial field. SPOTLIGHT ON SOCIAL REFORM There is a basic-danger facing those who must deal with Com- munists. It lurks in' the naive no- tion that Communism is simply another way of life differing from our own only in relation to freedom. Communism cannot be cor- rectly analyzed, the strategy of its leaders ac- curately diag- nosed or proper m e a n s and measures taken to prevent its evil effects, it the true nature of the menace is allowed to go unrecognized. Intrinsically Evil Communist Marxism differs from other false philosophies, such as Socialism, in one very distinctive essential. Commu- nis~m is intrinsically evil. Its evil nature flows from the source of all evil -- the devil. It is diabolical. It is not merely the working out of some human way of life by human agents.It has for its commander-in-chief a be- ing whose intellect surpasses the faculties of any human person. He is an archangel -- Lucifer --- fallen from his high place in heaven, devoid of the least spark or love, whose mind is filled and on fire with an unceasing, un- deviating hatred for God and man. Can't Be Destroyed by Bombs That is why this hateful Thing we call Communism can never be destroyed by bombs, deter- red by diplomacy, negated by negotiations. Not every Communist is pos- sessed by the devil. Not every move made by a Communist is in itself diabolical. Not every ac- tion of a Communis~ government is the immediate work of the devil. The Thing in itself, howev- er, in its nature, in its working out, in its philosophical con- cepts, in its power to deceive, is FATHER WILLIAM SMITH, S. J. intrinsically evil. It is of the devil. Need Firm Faith Only those who~have a strong and firm faith in the existence at an Almighty God, only those who have the spiritual perception to recognize the existence of Satan as the prime mover of all evil in the world, can adequately gauge the meaning and menace and the true nature of the enemy that faces mankind at the pres- ent time. Nothing New Remarks of this kind have been expressed by many in vari- ous ways many times. There is nothing new in the re-stating of them. Plus XI pointed out this truth bluntly and sharply 25 years ago. It is quite evident, nevertheless, from the efforts that have been made at the in- ternational level and by public and private agencies at home that' many, very many, are eith- er ignorant of this basic truth or too often forget it. Not Spiritual Fun~ctions Neither international relations nor national affairs can be con- ducted entirely and exclusively as though they were spiritual functions. "The things of Cae- sar" demand knowledge and competency of the world as it is and of the things of the world. Admmmtermg a government of and for the people is not the same as conducting a Eucharis- tic Congress. Must Recognize Nature If we hope to combat Com- munism successfully, nonethe- less, its true nature must be recognized. Spiritual means and spiritual motives rdust be em- ployed to detect its insidious influence. Spiritual weapons are needed for the counter~tttack against the spiritual power 6f darkness. Awaiting Position The nations of the world and our own people at home are ex. pectantly awaiting the "posi- tion" that the new Administra- tion in Washington will take toward the Communist evil as i~ is Symbolized today by the So- viet Union. With no pun intend- ed, I would say that the best position for those entrusted with public authority, beginning with the Chief Executive, would be on their knees at appropriate times. The Gospel account of the triple temptation of Christ Our Lord after His long forty-day fast in the desert, seems so pertinent to the world situation today that it stands out with striking significance. Then Jesus was led into the desert by the Spirit, writes St. Matthew, to be tempted by the devil. After fasting forty days and forty nights He was hungry The tempter came and said to Him, "If Thou art the Son of God, command that these stones become loaves of bread." Not Bread Alone But He answered and said, "It ~s written, 'not by bread alone does man live, but by every word that comes forth from the mouth of God.' " (The struggle between the Communist and the anti-Corn-~ munist nations today in regard to the under-privileged popula: tions of the world, is very much a conflict over bread.) The third temptation of Christ is painfully pertinent to our timeS. Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain, and showed Him all the Kingdoms of the world and the glories of them. And he said to Him, "All these things I will give Thee, if Thou wilt fall down and worship me.~' m How Many Have Listened? / How many victims, in high place and low, nations as well as individuals, have already lis- tened to that sinister whisper: ing of Satan and succumbed to its subtlety? , We are indeed living in dan- gerous times. The headlines do not and cannot tell us even the half of it. "Unless the Lord build the house, they labor in vain who build. "Unless the Lord guard the city, the guard watches in vain." , .i in tion of Church and State. They would resent as we all should, any Federal encroachment on parental or Church rights in the education of children. However, there are many things which we can rightly demand from the Fed- eral .Government which do not affect separation of Church and State. We can demand assistance in relation to school trans- portation, especially where such transportation to public schools passes private schools on route; then there is the school luncheon programs, and health and medical ser- vices ;- all these things can be given private schools without rocking the Constitutional boat. There is also the question of schblarship grants and stu- dent loans, an a/'ea where Federal discrimination is de- finitely being practiced. Defense Education Act Take for instance the National Defense Education Act. It provides some 5,500 graduate fellowships with grants up to $2,400 a year with the addition of $400 for each de- pendent. These fellowships give the student tremendous freedom to pursue courses on all subjects in both secular and Church conducted colleges. Direct grants can also be obtained, under the Act, for graduate schools, including religious ones. to help pay the cost of educating those receiving grants. Jesuit Father Virgil C. Blum o~ Marquette University points out that Congress, while encouraging the graduate student to think for himself, in no way intrudes on the sacred precincts of the students minds by telling them what to do and what to think. But he adds: "Congressional violations o~ freedom of mind and free- dam of religion, of academic freedom in the pursuit of truth, are crudely exemplified, however, in NDEA stu- dent-loan and institute provisions. A qualified student may borrow $5,000 to finance his education, regardless of the school he attends. If on graduating, the student decides to teach in a public school, one half of the: loan, plus interest, will be cancelled. If, however, he decides to teach in a private school, he must repay the entire loan, plus inter- est." Seem To Be Second Class Citizens There are many other instances in the National De- fense Education Act which give the impression that pri- eral rate school teachers and their students are second-class citizens. And, as Father Blum points out, "these second- class citizens are expected to shoulder the duties and bur- dens of citizenship, but, solely because of their color or religious beliefs they are denied'many of the general welfare benefits." There is something else, too, which should be borne in mind. Cardinal Spellman's comments have drawn res- ponses from several Protestant and Jewish spokesmen who 'contend that what His Eminence is advocating is a viola- tion of the Church-State separation concept. These state- ments by non-Catholic parochial schools, although the Cardinal stressed he was speaking of aid to children at- tending these schools rather than of aid to the schools themselves. Do Not Want Direct Aid This is the essential point. In order to preserve the autonomy of ou/" parochial and private schools we do not want direct Federal Aid. In other words we don't want the Government to provide the money for the buildings or the teachers, or for the text books. If we did want this, then we would be sounding the death bells of Catholic education. Federal aid is nearly always accompanied by Federal interference. But what is to stop the Government from directly aiding the students of private schools? After all, they are entitled to as many benefits as those in public schools. According to our Constitution there are no second class citizens in these United States. Hence, we don't expect the Govern- ment, especially, to treat us as if we were. Get Acquainted Catholic parents and educations should get well acquaint- ed with this crucial problem. We should all find out what is involved, then we should let our congressmen and Senators know just how we feel. There is no use sitting back until aftei" the leg:slat:tin has been agreed upon. If we don't like the fi~al measure that's approved, and we haven'f let our voice be heard, we have no right to com- plain. We have a vital stake in the matter. We must therefore become active and articulate citizens. This, in order that our rights will be protected and our educa- tional system furthered in the interest of all people, We, will discuss this question in further detail next week.